Previous research has demonstrated how emotion resembling cues in the face help shape impression formation (i. e., emotion overgeneralization). Perhaps most notable in the literature to date, has been work suggesting that gender-related appearance cues are visually confounded with certain stereotypic expressive cues (see Adams et al., 2015 for review). Only a couple studies to date have used computer vision to directly map out and test facial structural resemblance to emotion expressions using facial landmark coordinates to estimate face shape. In one study using a Bayesian network classifier trained to detect emotional expressions structural resemblance to a specific expression on a non-expressive (i.e., neutral) face was found to influence trait impressions of others (Said et al., 2009). In another study, a connectionist model trained to detect emotional expressions found different emotion-resembling cues in male vs. female faces (Zebrowitz et al., 2010). Despite this seminal work, direct evidence confirming the theoretical assertion that humans likewise utilize these emotion-resembling cues when forming impressions has been lacking. Across four studies, we replicate and extend these prior findings using new advances in computer vision to examine gender-related, emotion-resembling structure, color, and texture (as well as their weighted combination) and their impact on gender-stereotypic impression formation. We show that all three (plus their combination) are meaningfully related to human impressions of emotionally neutral faces. Further when applying the computer vision algorithms to experimentally manipulate faces, we show that humans derive similar impressions from them as did the computer.
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