The fate of endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair and the impact of oral anticoagulation on their persistence

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Abstract

Background: The impact of anticoagulation on late endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is unclear despite multiple investigators studying the relationship. The purpose of this study was to determine if long-term anticoagulation impacted the development of late endoleaks and if specific anticoagulants were more likely to exacerbate the development of endoleaks. Methods: Using the Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative database, patients undergoing EVAR between 2003 and 2019 for abdominal aortic aneurysms were evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups: those without a late endoleak and those with a late endoleak. Bivariate analysis was performed to assess preoperative, intraoperative, postoperative, and long-term follow-up variables. A multivariable analysis was done to determine associations of independent variables with late endoleaks. Patients were further subcategorized based on anticoagulation status before and after EVAR, specific type of anticoagulation, and the presence of an index endoleaks (diagnosed at the time of EVAR) to determine the subsequent frequency of late endoleaks. Results: A total of 29,783 patients were analyzed with 2169 (7.3%) having a late endoleak identified. Several risk factors were related to late endoleaks, including anticoagulation before and after EVAR (odds ratio [OR], 4.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57-6.96; P <.001), anticoagulation after EVAR (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.43-2.49; P <.001), and index endoleak (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.26-1.66; P <.001). The frequency of late endoleaks in patients anticoagulated before and after EVAR and after EVAR as compared with those never anticoagulated was 16.89% and 14.40% vs 6.95%, respectively (both P >.001). No difference in late endoleaks were noted for patients treated with warfarin and novel oral anticoagulants. The most common type of index and late endoleak identified was type II, but patients with type I, type II, and type IV index endoleaks were more commonly found to have type I, type II, and type IV late endoleaks, respectively. The frequency of late endoleaks in patients with both an index endoleak and anticoagulation after EVAR was 20.42% as compared with patients with only anticoagulation after EVAR (14.63%; P =.0015) and with patients with index endoleaks not anticoagulated (10.06%; P <.00001). Conclusions: Late endoleaks were more common in patients treated with anticoagulation after EVAR. No difference in late endoleak frequency was detected between anticoagulation with warfarin and novel oral anticoagulants. Patients on anticoagulation and those with an index endoleak were at a higher risk of having a late endoleak.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Vascular Surgery
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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