The fucose salvage pathway is a two-step process in which mammalian cells transform L-fucose into GDP-L-fucose, a universal fucose donor used by fucosyltransferases to modify glycans. Emerging evidence indicates the fucose salvage pathway and the fucosylation of proteins are altered during melanoma progression and metastasis. However the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Here, we report that the fucose salvage pathway inhibits invadopodia formation and extracellular matrix degradation by promoting α-1,2 fucosylation. Chemically or genetically increasing the fucose salvage pathway decreases invadopodium numbers and inhibits the proteolytic activity of invadopodia in WM793 melanoma cells. Inhibiting fucosylation by depleting fucokinase abrogates L-fucose-mediated inhibition of invadopodia, suggesting dependence on the fucose salvage pathway. The inhibition of invadopodium formation by L-fucose or ectopically expressed FUK could be rescued by treatment with α-1,2, but not α-1,3/α-1,4 fucosidase, implicating an α-1,2 fucose linkage-dependent anti-metastatic effect. The expression of FUT1, an α-1,2 fucosyltransferase, is remarkably down-regulated during melanoma progression, and the ectopic expression of FUT1 is sufficient to inhibit invadopodium formation and ECM degradation. Our findings indicate that the fucose salvage pathway can inhibit invadopodium formation, and consequently, invasiveness in melanoma via α-1,2 fucosylation. Re-activation of this pathway in melanoma could be useful for preventing melanoma invasion and metastasis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)