The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic

Maanasa Raghavan, Michael DeGiorgio, Anders Albrechtsen, Ida Moltke, Pontus Skoglund, Thorfinn S. Korneliussen, Bjarne Grønnow, Martin Appelt, Hans Christian Gulløv, T. Max Friesen, William Fitzhugh, Helena Malmström, Simon Rasmussen, Jesper Olsen, Linea Melchior, Benjamin T. Fuller, Simon M. Fahrni, Thomas Stafford, Vaughan Grimes, M. A.Priscilla Renouf & 36 others Jerome Cybulski, Niels Lynnerup, Marta Mirazon Lahr, Kate Britton, Rick Knecht, Jette Arneborg, Mait Metspalu, Omar E. Cornejo, Anna Sapfo Malaspinas, Yong Wang, Morten Rasmussen, Vibha Raghavan, Thomas V.O. Hansen, Elza Khusnutdinova, Tracey Pierre, Kirill Dneprovsky, Claus Andreasen, Hans Lange, M. Geoffrey Hayes, Joan Coltrain, Victor A. Spitsyn, Anders Götherström, Ludovic Orlando, Toomas Kivisild, Richard Villems, Michael H. Crawford, Finn C. Nielsen, Jørgen Dissing, Jan Heinemeier, Morten Meldgaard, Carlos Bustamante, Dennis H. O'Rourke, Mattias Jakobsson, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Rasmus Nielsen, Eske Willerslev

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

142 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The New World Arctic, the last region of the Americas to be populated by humans, has a relatively well-researched archaeology, but an understanding of its genetic history is lacking.We present genome-wide sequence data from ancient and present-day humans from Greenland, Arctic Canada, Alaska, Aleutian Islands, and Siberia. We show that Paleo-Eskimos (∼3000 BCE to 1300 CE) represent a migration pulse into the Americas independent of both Native American and Inuit expansions. Furthermore, the genetic continuity characterizing the Paleo-Eskimo period was interrupted by the arrival of a new population, representing the ancestors of present-day Inuit, with evidence of past gene flow between these lineages. Despite periodic abandonment of major Arctic regions, a single Paleo-Eskimo metapopulation likely survived in near-isolation for more than 4000 years, only to vanish around 700 years ago.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1255832
JournalScience
Volume345
Issue number6200
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 29 2014

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Inuits
Arctic Regions
Archaeology
Greenland
Siberia
Gene Flow
North American Indians
Canada
History
Genome
Population

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General

Cite this

Raghavan, M., DeGiorgio, M., Albrechtsen, A., Moltke, I., Skoglund, P., Korneliussen, T. S., ... Willerslev, E. (2014). The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic. Science, 345(6200), [1255832]. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1255832
Raghavan, Maanasa ; DeGiorgio, Michael ; Albrechtsen, Anders ; Moltke, Ida ; Skoglund, Pontus ; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S. ; Grønnow, Bjarne ; Appelt, Martin ; Gulløv, Hans Christian ; Friesen, T. Max ; Fitzhugh, William ; Malmström, Helena ; Rasmussen, Simon ; Olsen, Jesper ; Melchior, Linea ; Fuller, Benjamin T. ; Fahrni, Simon M. ; Stafford, Thomas ; Grimes, Vaughan ; Renouf, M. A.Priscilla ; Cybulski, Jerome ; Lynnerup, Niels ; Lahr, Marta Mirazon ; Britton, Kate ; Knecht, Rick ; Arneborg, Jette ; Metspalu, Mait ; Cornejo, Omar E. ; Malaspinas, Anna Sapfo ; Wang, Yong ; Rasmussen, Morten ; Raghavan, Vibha ; Hansen, Thomas V.O. ; Khusnutdinova, Elza ; Pierre, Tracey ; Dneprovsky, Kirill ; Andreasen, Claus ; Lange, Hans ; Hayes, M. Geoffrey ; Coltrain, Joan ; Spitsyn, Victor A. ; Götherström, Anders ; Orlando, Ludovic ; Kivisild, Toomas ; Villems, Richard ; Crawford, Michael H. ; Nielsen, Finn C. ; Dissing, Jørgen ; Heinemeier, Jan ; Meldgaard, Morten ; Bustamante, Carlos ; O'Rourke, Dennis H. ; Jakobsson, Mattias ; Gilbert, M. Thomas P. ; Nielsen, Rasmus ; Willerslev, Eske. / The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic. In: Science. 2014 ; Vol. 345, No. 6200.
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abstract = "The New World Arctic, the last region of the Americas to be populated by humans, has a relatively well-researched archaeology, but an understanding of its genetic history is lacking.We present genome-wide sequence data from ancient and present-day humans from Greenland, Arctic Canada, Alaska, Aleutian Islands, and Siberia. We show that Paleo-Eskimos (∼3000 BCE to 1300 CE) represent a migration pulse into the Americas independent of both Native American and Inuit expansions. Furthermore, the genetic continuity characterizing the Paleo-Eskimo period was interrupted by the arrival of a new population, representing the ancestors of present-day Inuit, with evidence of past gene flow between these lineages. Despite periodic abandonment of major Arctic regions, a single Paleo-Eskimo metapopulation likely survived in near-isolation for more than 4000 years, only to vanish around 700 years ago.",
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Raghavan, M, DeGiorgio, M, Albrechtsen, A, Moltke, I, Skoglund, P, Korneliussen, TS, Grønnow, B, Appelt, M, Gulløv, HC, Friesen, TM, Fitzhugh, W, Malmström, H, Rasmussen, S, Olsen, J, Melchior, L, Fuller, BT, Fahrni, SM, Stafford, T, Grimes, V, Renouf, MAP, Cybulski, J, Lynnerup, N, Lahr, MM, Britton, K, Knecht, R, Arneborg, J, Metspalu, M, Cornejo, OE, Malaspinas, AS, Wang, Y, Rasmussen, M, Raghavan, V, Hansen, TVO, Khusnutdinova, E, Pierre, T, Dneprovsky, K, Andreasen, C, Lange, H, Hayes, MG, Coltrain, J, Spitsyn, VA, Götherström, A, Orlando, L, Kivisild, T, Villems, R, Crawford, MH, Nielsen, FC, Dissing, J, Heinemeier, J, Meldgaard, M, Bustamante, C, O'Rourke, DH, Jakobsson, M, Gilbert, MTP, Nielsen, R & Willerslev, E 2014, 'The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic', Science, vol. 345, no. 6200, 1255832. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1255832

The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic. / Raghavan, Maanasa; DeGiorgio, Michael; Albrechtsen, Anders; Moltke, Ida; Skoglund, Pontus; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S.; Grønnow, Bjarne; Appelt, Martin; Gulløv, Hans Christian; Friesen, T. Max; Fitzhugh, William; Malmström, Helena; Rasmussen, Simon; Olsen, Jesper; Melchior, Linea; Fuller, Benjamin T.; Fahrni, Simon M.; Stafford, Thomas; Grimes, Vaughan; Renouf, M. A.Priscilla; Cybulski, Jerome; Lynnerup, Niels; Lahr, Marta Mirazon; Britton, Kate; Knecht, Rick; Arneborg, Jette; Metspalu, Mait; Cornejo, Omar E.; Malaspinas, Anna Sapfo; Wang, Yong; Rasmussen, Morten; Raghavan, Vibha; Hansen, Thomas V.O.; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Pierre, Tracey; Dneprovsky, Kirill; Andreasen, Claus; Lange, Hans; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Coltrain, Joan; Spitsyn, Victor A.; Götherström, Anders; Orlando, Ludovic; Kivisild, Toomas; Villems, Richard; Crawford, Michael H.; Nielsen, Finn C.; Dissing, Jørgen; Heinemeier, Jan; Meldgaard, Morten; Bustamante, Carlos; O'Rourke, Dennis H.; Jakobsson, Mattias; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske.

In: Science, Vol. 345, No. 6200, 1255832, 29.08.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic

AU - Raghavan, Maanasa

AU - DeGiorgio, Michael

AU - Albrechtsen, Anders

AU - Moltke, Ida

AU - Skoglund, Pontus

AU - Korneliussen, Thorfinn S.

AU - Grønnow, Bjarne

AU - Appelt, Martin

AU - Gulløv, Hans Christian

AU - Friesen, T. Max

AU - Fitzhugh, William

AU - Malmström, Helena

AU - Rasmussen, Simon

AU - Olsen, Jesper

AU - Melchior, Linea

AU - Fuller, Benjamin T.

AU - Fahrni, Simon M.

AU - Stafford, Thomas

AU - Grimes, Vaughan

AU - Renouf, M. A.Priscilla

AU - Cybulski, Jerome

AU - Lynnerup, Niels

AU - Lahr, Marta Mirazon

AU - Britton, Kate

AU - Knecht, Rick

AU - Arneborg, Jette

AU - Metspalu, Mait

AU - Cornejo, Omar E.

AU - Malaspinas, Anna Sapfo

AU - Wang, Yong

AU - Rasmussen, Morten

AU - Raghavan, Vibha

AU - Hansen, Thomas V.O.

AU - Khusnutdinova, Elza

AU - Pierre, Tracey

AU - Dneprovsky, Kirill

AU - Andreasen, Claus

AU - Lange, Hans

AU - Hayes, M. Geoffrey

AU - Coltrain, Joan

AU - Spitsyn, Victor A.

AU - Götherström, Anders

AU - Orlando, Ludovic

AU - Kivisild, Toomas

AU - Villems, Richard

AU - Crawford, Michael H.

AU - Nielsen, Finn C.

AU - Dissing, Jørgen

AU - Heinemeier, Jan

AU - Meldgaard, Morten

AU - Bustamante, Carlos

AU - O'Rourke, Dennis H.

AU - Jakobsson, Mattias

AU - Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

AU - Nielsen, Rasmus

AU - Willerslev, Eske

PY - 2014/8/29

Y1 - 2014/8/29

N2 - The New World Arctic, the last region of the Americas to be populated by humans, has a relatively well-researched archaeology, but an understanding of its genetic history is lacking.We present genome-wide sequence data from ancient and present-day humans from Greenland, Arctic Canada, Alaska, Aleutian Islands, and Siberia. We show that Paleo-Eskimos (∼3000 BCE to 1300 CE) represent a migration pulse into the Americas independent of both Native American and Inuit expansions. Furthermore, the genetic continuity characterizing the Paleo-Eskimo period was interrupted by the arrival of a new population, representing the ancestors of present-day Inuit, with evidence of past gene flow between these lineages. Despite periodic abandonment of major Arctic regions, a single Paleo-Eskimo metapopulation likely survived in near-isolation for more than 4000 years, only to vanish around 700 years ago.

AB - The New World Arctic, the last region of the Americas to be populated by humans, has a relatively well-researched archaeology, but an understanding of its genetic history is lacking.We present genome-wide sequence data from ancient and present-day humans from Greenland, Arctic Canada, Alaska, Aleutian Islands, and Siberia. We show that Paleo-Eskimos (∼3000 BCE to 1300 CE) represent a migration pulse into the Americas independent of both Native American and Inuit expansions. Furthermore, the genetic continuity characterizing the Paleo-Eskimo period was interrupted by the arrival of a new population, representing the ancestors of present-day Inuit, with evidence of past gene flow between these lineages. Despite periodic abandonment of major Arctic regions, a single Paleo-Eskimo metapopulation likely survived in near-isolation for more than 4000 years, only to vanish around 700 years ago.

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Raghavan M, DeGiorgio M, Albrechtsen A, Moltke I, Skoglund P, Korneliussen TS et al. The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic. Science. 2014 Aug 29;345(6200). 1255832. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1255832