The genome of Cryptosporidium hominis

Ping Xu, Giovanni Widmer, Yingping Wang, Lulz S. Ozaki, Joao M. Alves, Myrna G. Serrano, Daniela Pulu, Patriclo Manque, Donna Akiyoshi, Aaron J. Mackey, William R. Pearson, Paul H. Dear, Alan T. Bankler, Darrell L. Peterson, Mltchell S. Abrahamsen, Vivek Kapur, Saul Tzipori, Gregory A. Buck

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

366 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cryptosporidium species cause acute gastroenteritis and diarrhoea worldwide. They are members of the Apicomplexa-protozoan pathogens that invade host cells by using a specialized apical complex and are usually transmitted by an invertebrate vector or intermediate host. In contrast to other Apicomplexans, Cryptosporidium is transmitted by ingestion of oocysts and completes its life cycle in a single host. No therapy is available, and control focuses on eliminating oocysts in water supplies. Two species, C. hominis and C. parvum, which differ in host range, genotype and pathogenicity, are most relevant to humans. C. hominis is restricted to humans, whereas C. parvum also infects other mammals. Here we describe the eight-chromosome ∼9.2-million-base genome of C. hominis. The complement of C. hominis protein-coding genes shows a striking concordance with the requirements imposed by the environmental niches the parasite inhabits. Energy metabolism is largely from glycolysis. Both aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms are available, the former requiring an alternative electron transport system in a simplified mitochondrion. Biosynthesis capabilities are limited, explaining an extensive array of transporters. Evidence of an apicoplast is absent, but genes associated with apical complex organelles are present. C. hominis and C. parvum exhibit very similar gene complements, and phenotypic differences between these parasites must be due to subtle sequence divergence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1107-1112
Number of pages6
JournalNature
Volume431
Issue number7012
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 28 2004

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Cryptosporidium
Oocysts
Parasites
Apicoplasts
Genome
Apicomplexa
Anaerobiosis
Water Supply
Host Specificity
Gastroenteritis
Glycolysis
Invertebrates
Electron Transport
Protein C
Life Cycle Stages
Organelles
Energy Metabolism
Genes
Virulence
Mammals

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General

Cite this

Xu, P., Widmer, G., Wang, Y., Ozaki, L. S., Alves, J. M., Serrano, M. G., ... Buck, G. A. (2004). The genome of Cryptosporidium hominis. Nature, 431(7012), 1107-1112. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02977
Xu, Ping ; Widmer, Giovanni ; Wang, Yingping ; Ozaki, Lulz S. ; Alves, Joao M. ; Serrano, Myrna G. ; Pulu, Daniela ; Manque, Patriclo ; Akiyoshi, Donna ; Mackey, Aaron J. ; Pearson, William R. ; Dear, Paul H. ; Bankler, Alan T. ; Peterson, Darrell L. ; Abrahamsen, Mltchell S. ; Kapur, Vivek ; Tzipori, Saul ; Buck, Gregory A. / The genome of Cryptosporidium hominis. In: Nature. 2004 ; Vol. 431, No. 7012. pp. 1107-1112.
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Xu, P, Widmer, G, Wang, Y, Ozaki, LS, Alves, JM, Serrano, MG, Pulu, D, Manque, P, Akiyoshi, D, Mackey, AJ, Pearson, WR, Dear, PH, Bankler, AT, Peterson, DL, Abrahamsen, MS, Kapur, V, Tzipori, S & Buck, GA 2004, 'The genome of Cryptosporidium hominis', Nature, vol. 431, no. 7012, pp. 1107-1112. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02977

The genome of Cryptosporidium hominis. / Xu, Ping; Widmer, Giovanni; Wang, Yingping; Ozaki, Lulz S.; Alves, Joao M.; Serrano, Myrna G.; Pulu, Daniela; Manque, Patriclo; Akiyoshi, Donna; Mackey, Aaron J.; Pearson, William R.; Dear, Paul H.; Bankler, Alan T.; Peterson, Darrell L.; Abrahamsen, Mltchell S.; Kapur, Vivek; Tzipori, Saul; Buck, Gregory A.

In: Nature, Vol. 431, No. 7012, 28.10.2004, p. 1107-1112.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - The genome of Cryptosporidium hominis

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AU - Widmer, Giovanni

AU - Wang, Yingping

AU - Ozaki, Lulz S.

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AU - Serrano, Myrna G.

AU - Pulu, Daniela

AU - Manque, Patriclo

AU - Akiyoshi, Donna

AU - Mackey, Aaron J.

AU - Pearson, William R.

AU - Dear, Paul H.

AU - Bankler, Alan T.

AU - Peterson, Darrell L.

AU - Abrahamsen, Mltchell S.

AU - Kapur, Vivek

AU - Tzipori, Saul

AU - Buck, Gregory A.

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N2 - Cryptosporidium species cause acute gastroenteritis and diarrhoea worldwide. They are members of the Apicomplexa-protozoan pathogens that invade host cells by using a specialized apical complex and are usually transmitted by an invertebrate vector or intermediate host. In contrast to other Apicomplexans, Cryptosporidium is transmitted by ingestion of oocysts and completes its life cycle in a single host. No therapy is available, and control focuses on eliminating oocysts in water supplies. Two species, C. hominis and C. parvum, which differ in host range, genotype and pathogenicity, are most relevant to humans. C. hominis is restricted to humans, whereas C. parvum also infects other mammals. Here we describe the eight-chromosome ∼9.2-million-base genome of C. hominis. The complement of C. hominis protein-coding genes shows a striking concordance with the requirements imposed by the environmental niches the parasite inhabits. Energy metabolism is largely from glycolysis. Both aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms are available, the former requiring an alternative electron transport system in a simplified mitochondrion. Biosynthesis capabilities are limited, explaining an extensive array of transporters. Evidence of an apicoplast is absent, but genes associated with apical complex organelles are present. C. hominis and C. parvum exhibit very similar gene complements, and phenotypic differences between these parasites must be due to subtle sequence divergence.

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Xu P, Widmer G, Wang Y, Ozaki LS, Alves JM, Serrano MG et al. The genome of Cryptosporidium hominis. Nature. 2004 Oct 28;431(7012):1107-1112. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02977