The genome of Theobroma cacao

Xavier Argout, Jerome Salse, Jean Marc Aury, Mark Guiltinan, Gaetan Droc, Jerome Gouzy, Mathilde Allegre, Cristian Chaparro, Thierry Legavre, Siela Maximova, Michael Abrouk, Florent Murat, Olivier Fouet, Julie Poulain, Manuel Ruiz, Yolande Roguet, Maguy Rodier-Goud, Jose Fernandes Barbosa-Neto, Francois Sabot, Dave KudrnaJetty Siva S. Ammiraju, Stephan C. Schuster, John Edward Carlson, Erika Sallet, Thomas Schiex, Anne Dievart, Melissa Kramer, Laura Gelley, Zi Shi, Aurélie Bérard, Christopher Viot, Michel Boccara, Ange Marie Risterucci, Valentin Guignon, Xavier Sabau, Michael Axtell, Zhaorong Ma, Yufan Zhang, Spencer Brown, Mickael Bourge, Wolfgang Golser, Xiang Song, Didier Clement, Ronan Rivallan, Mathias Tahi, Joseph Moroh Akaza, Bertrand Pitollat, Karina Gramacho, Anglique D'Hont, Dominique Brunel, Diogenes Infante, Ismael Kebe, Pierre Costet, Rod Wing, W. Richard McCombie, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Francis Quetier, Olivier Panaud, Patrick Wincker, Stephanie Bocs, Claire Lanaud

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

370 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We sequenced and assembled the draft genome of Theobroma cacao, an economically important tropical-fruit tree crop that is the source of chocolate. This assembly corresponds to 76% of the estimated genome size and contains almost all previously described genes, with 82% of these genes anchored on the 10 T. cacao chromosomes. Analysis of this sequence information highlighted specific expansion of some gene families during evolution, for example, flavonoid-related genes. It also provides a major source of candidate genes for T. cacao improvement. Based on the inferred paleohistory of the T. cacao genome, we propose an evolutionary scenario whereby the ten T. cacao chromosomes were shaped from an ancestor through eleven chromosome fusions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)101-108
Number of pages8
JournalNature Genetics
Volume43
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2011

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Cacao
Genome
Chromosomes
Genes
Genome Size
Flavonoids
Sequence Analysis
Fruit

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Genetics

Cite this

Argout, X., Salse, J., Aury, J. M., Guiltinan, M., Droc, G., Gouzy, J., ... Lanaud, C. (2011). The genome of Theobroma cacao. Nature Genetics, 43(2), 101-108. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.736
Argout, Xavier ; Salse, Jerome ; Aury, Jean Marc ; Guiltinan, Mark ; Droc, Gaetan ; Gouzy, Jerome ; Allegre, Mathilde ; Chaparro, Cristian ; Legavre, Thierry ; Maximova, Siela ; Abrouk, Michael ; Murat, Florent ; Fouet, Olivier ; Poulain, Julie ; Ruiz, Manuel ; Roguet, Yolande ; Rodier-Goud, Maguy ; Barbosa-Neto, Jose Fernandes ; Sabot, Francois ; Kudrna, Dave ; Ammiraju, Jetty Siva S. ; Schuster, Stephan C. ; Carlson, John Edward ; Sallet, Erika ; Schiex, Thomas ; Dievart, Anne ; Kramer, Melissa ; Gelley, Laura ; Shi, Zi ; Bérard, Aurélie ; Viot, Christopher ; Boccara, Michel ; Risterucci, Ange Marie ; Guignon, Valentin ; Sabau, Xavier ; Axtell, Michael ; Ma, Zhaorong ; Zhang, Yufan ; Brown, Spencer ; Bourge, Mickael ; Golser, Wolfgang ; Song, Xiang ; Clement, Didier ; Rivallan, Ronan ; Tahi, Mathias ; Akaza, Joseph Moroh ; Pitollat, Bertrand ; Gramacho, Karina ; D'Hont, Anglique ; Brunel, Dominique ; Infante, Diogenes ; Kebe, Ismael ; Costet, Pierre ; Wing, Rod ; McCombie, W. Richard ; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel ; Quetier, Francis ; Panaud, Olivier ; Wincker, Patrick ; Bocs, Stephanie ; Lanaud, Claire. / The genome of Theobroma cacao. In: Nature Genetics. 2011 ; Vol. 43, No. 2. pp. 101-108.
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Argout, X, Salse, J, Aury, JM, Guiltinan, M, Droc, G, Gouzy, J, Allegre, M, Chaparro, C, Legavre, T, Maximova, S, Abrouk, M, Murat, F, Fouet, O, Poulain, J, Ruiz, M, Roguet, Y, Rodier-Goud, M, Barbosa-Neto, JF, Sabot, F, Kudrna, D, Ammiraju, JSS, Schuster, SC, Carlson, JE, Sallet, E, Schiex, T, Dievart, A, Kramer, M, Gelley, L, Shi, Z, Bérard, A, Viot, C, Boccara, M, Risterucci, AM, Guignon, V, Sabau, X, Axtell, M, Ma, Z, Zhang, Y, Brown, S, Bourge, M, Golser, W, Song, X, Clement, D, Rivallan, R, Tahi, M, Akaza, JM, Pitollat, B, Gramacho, K, D'Hont, A, Brunel, D, Infante, D, Kebe, I, Costet, P, Wing, R, McCombie, WR, Guiderdoni, E, Quetier, F, Panaud, O, Wincker, P, Bocs, S & Lanaud, C 2011, 'The genome of Theobroma cacao', Nature Genetics, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 101-108. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.736

The genome of Theobroma cacao. / Argout, Xavier; Salse, Jerome; Aury, Jean Marc; Guiltinan, Mark; Droc, Gaetan; Gouzy, Jerome; Allegre, Mathilde; Chaparro, Cristian; Legavre, Thierry; Maximova, Siela; Abrouk, Michael; Murat, Florent; Fouet, Olivier; Poulain, Julie; Ruiz, Manuel; Roguet, Yolande; Rodier-Goud, Maguy; Barbosa-Neto, Jose Fernandes; Sabot, Francois; Kudrna, Dave; Ammiraju, Jetty Siva S.; Schuster, Stephan C.; Carlson, John Edward; Sallet, Erika; Schiex, Thomas; Dievart, Anne; Kramer, Melissa; Gelley, Laura; Shi, Zi; Bérard, Aurélie; Viot, Christopher; Boccara, Michel; Risterucci, Ange Marie; Guignon, Valentin; Sabau, Xavier; Axtell, Michael; Ma, Zhaorong; Zhang, Yufan; Brown, Spencer; Bourge, Mickael; Golser, Wolfgang; Song, Xiang; Clement, Didier; Rivallan, Ronan; Tahi, Mathias; Akaza, Joseph Moroh; Pitollat, Bertrand; Gramacho, Karina; D'Hont, Anglique; Brunel, Dominique; Infante, Diogenes; Kebe, Ismael; Costet, Pierre; Wing, Rod; McCombie, W. Richard; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Quetier, Francis; Panaud, Olivier; Wincker, Patrick; Bocs, Stephanie; Lanaud, Claire.

In: Nature Genetics, Vol. 43, No. 2, 01.01.2011, p. 101-108.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Droc, Gaetan

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AU - Allegre, Mathilde

AU - Chaparro, Cristian

AU - Legavre, Thierry

AU - Maximova, Siela

AU - Abrouk, Michael

AU - Murat, Florent

AU - Fouet, Olivier

AU - Poulain, Julie

AU - Ruiz, Manuel

AU - Roguet, Yolande

AU - Rodier-Goud, Maguy

AU - Barbosa-Neto, Jose Fernandes

AU - Sabot, Francois

AU - Kudrna, Dave

AU - Ammiraju, Jetty Siva S.

AU - Schuster, Stephan C.

AU - Carlson, John Edward

AU - Sallet, Erika

AU - Schiex, Thomas

AU - Dievart, Anne

AU - Kramer, Melissa

AU - Gelley, Laura

AU - Shi, Zi

AU - Bérard, Aurélie

AU - Viot, Christopher

AU - Boccara, Michel

AU - Risterucci, Ange Marie

AU - Guignon, Valentin

AU - Sabau, Xavier

AU - Axtell, Michael

AU - Ma, Zhaorong

AU - Zhang, Yufan

AU - Brown, Spencer

AU - Bourge, Mickael

AU - Golser, Wolfgang

AU - Song, Xiang

AU - Clement, Didier

AU - Rivallan, Ronan

AU - Tahi, Mathias

AU - Akaza, Joseph Moroh

AU - Pitollat, Bertrand

AU - Gramacho, Karina

AU - D'Hont, Anglique

AU - Brunel, Dominique

AU - Infante, Diogenes

AU - Kebe, Ismael

AU - Costet, Pierre

AU - Wing, Rod

AU - McCombie, W. Richard

AU - Guiderdoni, Emmanuel

AU - Quetier, Francis

AU - Panaud, Olivier

AU - Wincker, Patrick

AU - Bocs, Stephanie

AU - Lanaud, Claire

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Argout X, Salse J, Aury JM, Guiltinan M, Droc G, Gouzy J et al. The genome of Theobroma cacao. Nature Genetics. 2011 Jan 1;43(2):101-108. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.736