The genome sequence of psychrobacter arcticus 273-4, a psychroactive siberian permafrost bacterium, reveals mechanisms for adaptation to low-temperature growth

Héctor L. Ayala-Del-Río, Patrick S. Chain, Joseph J. Grzymski, Monica A. Ponder, Natalia Ivanova, Peter W. Bergholz, Genevive Di Bartolo, Loren Hauser, Miriam Land, Corien Bakermans, Debora Rodrigues, Joel Klappenbach, Dan Zarka, Frank Larimer, Paul Richardson, Alison Murray, Michael Thomashow, James M. Tiedje

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Abstract

Psychrobacter arcticus strain 273-4, which grows at temperatures as low as -10°C, is the first cold-adapted bacterium from a terrestrial environment whose genome was sequenced. Analysis of the 2.65-Mb genome suggested that some of the strategies employed by P. arcticus 273-4 for survival under cold and stress conditions are changes in membrane composition, synthesis of cold shock proteins, and the use of acetate as an energy source. Comparative genome analysis indicated that in a significant portion of the P. arcticus proteome there is reduced use of the acidic amino acids and proline and arginine, which is consistent with increased protein flexibility at low temperatures. Differential amino acid usage occurred in all gene categories, but it was more common in gene categories essential for cell growth and reproduction, suggesting that P. arcticus evolved to grow at low temperatures. Amino acid adaptations and the gene content likely evolved in response to the long-term freezing temperatures (-10°C to -12°C) of the Kolyma (Siberia) permafrost soil from which this strain was isolated. Intracellular water likely does not freeze at these in situ temperatures, which allows P. arcticus to live at subzero temperatures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2304-2312
Number of pages9
JournalApplied and environmental microbiology
Volume76
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2010

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Ecology

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    Ayala-Del-Río, H. L., Chain, P. S., Grzymski, J. J., Ponder, M. A., Ivanova, N., Bergholz, P. W., Bartolo, G. D., Hauser, L., Land, M., Bakermans, C., Rodrigues, D., Klappenbach, J., Zarka, D., Larimer, F., Richardson, P., Murray, A., Thomashow, M., & Tiedje, J. M. (2010). The genome sequence of psychrobacter arcticus 273-4, a psychroactive siberian permafrost bacterium, reveals mechanisms for adaptation to low-temperature growth. Applied and environmental microbiology, 76(7), 2304-2312. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02101-09