The genomic history of the Iberian Peninsula over the past 8000 years

Iñigo Olalde, Swapan Mallick, Nick Patterson, Nadin Rohland, Vanessa Villalba-Mouco, Marina Silva, Katharina Dulias, Ceiridwen J. Edwards, Francesca Gandini, Maria Pala, Pedro Soares, Manuel Ferrando-Bernal, Nicole Adamski, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Olivia Cheronet, Brendan J. Culleton, Daniel Fernandes, Ann Marie Lawson, Matthew Mah, Jonas OppenheimerKristin Stewardson, Zhao Zhang, Juan Manuel Jiménez Arenas, Isidro Jorge Toro Moyano, Domingo C. Salazar-García, Pere Castanyer, Marta Santos, Joaquim Tremoleda, Marina Lozano, Pablo García Borja, Javier Fernández-Eraso, José Antonio Mujika-Alustiza, Cecilio Barroso, Francisco J. Bermúdez, Enrique Viguera Mínguez, Josep Burch, Neus Coromina, David Vivó, Artur Cebrià, Josep Maria Fullola, Oreto García-Puchol, Juan Ignacio Morales, F. Xavier Oms, Tona Majó, Josep Maria Vergès, Antònia Díaz-Carvajal, Imma Ollich-Castanyer, F. Javier López-Cachero, Ana Maria Silva, Carmen Alonso-Fernández, Germán Delibes De Castro, Javier Jiménez Echevarría, Adolfo Moreno-Márquez, Guillermo Pascual Berlanga, Pablo Ramos-García, José Ramos-Muñoz, Eduardo Vijande Vila, Gustau Aguilella Arzo, Ángel Esparza Arroyo, Katina T. Lillios, Jennifer Mack, Javier Velasco-Vázquez, Anna Waterman, Luis Benítez De Lugo Enrich, María Benito Sánchez, Bibiana Agustí, Ferran Codina, Gabriel De Prado, Almudena Estalrrich, Álvaro Fernández Flores, Clive Finlayson, Geraldine Finlayson, Stewart Finlayson, Francisco Giles-Guzmán, Antonio Rosas, Virginia Barciela González, Gabriel García Atiénzar, Mauro S. Hernández Pérez, Armando Llanos, Yolanda Carrión Marco, Isabel Collado Beneyto, David López-Serrano, Mario Sanz Tormo, António C. Valera, Concepción Blasco, Corina Liesau, Patricia Ríos, Joan Daura, María Jesús De Pedro Michó, Agustín A. Diez-Castillo, Raúl Flores Fernández, Joan Francès Farré, Rafael Garrido-Pena, Victor S. Gonçalves, Elisa Guerra-Doce, Ana Mercedes Herrero-Corral, Joaquim Juan-Cabanilles, Daniel López-Reyes, Sarah B. McClure, Marta Merino Pérez, Arturo Oliver Foix, Montserrat Sanz Borràs, Ana Catarina Sousa, Julio Manuel Vidal Encinas, Douglas J. Kennett, Martin B. Richards, Kurt Werner Alt, Wolfgang Haak, Ron Pinhasi, Carles Lalueza-Fox, David Reich

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Abstract

We assembled genome-wide data from 271 ancient Iberians, of whom 176 are from the largely unsampled period after 2000 BCE, thereby providing a high-resolution time transect of the Iberian Peninsula. We document high genetic substructure between northwestern and southeastern hunter-gatherers before the spread of farming. We reveal sporadic contacts between Iberia and North Africa by ~2500 BCE and, by ~2000 BCE, the replacement of 40% of Iberia's ancestry and nearly 100% of its Y-chromosomes by people with Steppe ancestry. We show that, in the Iron Age, Steppe ancestry had spread not only into Indo-European-speaking regions but also into non-Indo-European-speaking ones, and we reveal that present-day Basques are best described as a typical Iron Age population without the admixture events that later affected the rest of Iberia. Additionally, we document how, beginning at least in the Roman period, the ancestry of the peninsula was transformed by gene flow from North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1230-1234
Number of pages5
JournalScience
Volume363
Issue number6432
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 15 2019

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Olalde, I., Mallick, S., Patterson, N., Rohland, N., Villalba-Mouco, V., Silva, M., Dulias, K., Edwards, C. J., Gandini, F., Pala, M., Soares, P., Ferrando-Bernal, M., Adamski, N., Broomandkhoshbacht, N., Cheronet, O., Culleton, B. J., Fernandes, D., Lawson, A. M., Mah, M., ... Reich, D. (2019). The genomic history of the Iberian Peninsula over the past 8000 years. Science, 363(6432), 1230-1234. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aav4040