Stomatal movements require massive changes in guard cell osmotic content, and both stomatal opening and stomatal closure have been shown to be energy-requiring processes. A possible role for glycolysis in contributing to the energetic, reducing requirements, or signalling processes regulating stomatal movements has not been investigated previously. Glycolysis, oxidization of glucose to pyruvate, is a central metabolic pathway and yields a net gain of 2 ATP and 2 NADH. 2,3-biphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (iPGAM) is a key enzymatic activity in glycolysis and catalyses the reversible interconversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate. To investigate functions of iPGAMs and glycolysis in stomatal function and plant growth, Arabidopsis insertional mutants in At1g09780 and At3g08590, both of which have been annotated as iPGAMs on the basis of sequence homology, were identified and characterized. While single mutants were indistinguishable from the wild type in all plant phenotypes assayed, double mutants had no detectable iPGAM activity and showed defects in blue light-, abscisic acid-, and low CO 2-regulated stomatal movements. Vegetative plant growth was severely impaired in the double mutants and pollen was not produced. The data demonstrate that iPGAMs and glycolytic activity are critical for guard cell function and fertility in Arabidopsis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Plant Science