A wide variety of gas phase ions with kinetic energies from 1-107 eV increasingly are being used for the growth and modification of state-of-the-art material interfaces. Ions can be used to deposit thin films; expose fresh interfaces by sputtering; grow mixed interface layers from ions, ambient neutrals, and/or surface atoms; modify the phases of interfaces; dope trace elements into interface regions; impart specific chemical functionalities to a surface; toughen materials; and create micron- and nanometer-scale interface structures. Several examples are developed which demonstrate the variety of technologically important interface modification that is possible with gas phase ions. These examples have been selected to demonstrate how the choice of the ion and its kinetic energy controls modification and deposition for several different materials. Examples are drawn from experiments, computer simulations, fundamental research, and active technological applications. Finally, a list of research areas is provided for which ion-surface modification promises considerable scientific and technological advances in the new millennium.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Surfaces and Interfaces
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry