The human occipital bone: review and update on its embryology and molecular development

Shenell Bernard, Marios Loukas, Elias Rizk, Rod J. Oskouian, Johnny Delashaw, R. Shane Tubbs

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: The formation of the occipital bone is intricate and has been extensively studied with many controversial conclusions, but with minimal effort being focused on the genes and molecular interactions necessary for its formation. A better understanding of this bone of the calvarial and skull base may shed light on pathologies where the occiput is often considered the offending entity. Methods: A review of the germane medical literature using textbooks and standard search engines was performed to gather information about previous conclusions as it pertains to the embryology and ossification of the occipital bone. Results: The occipital bone has both membranous and cartilaginous origin with ossification occurring as early as week 9 of fetal gestation. Its formations is dependent on complex interacts between genes and molecules with pathologies resulting from disruption of this delicate process. Conclusion: There has been much controversy in the past in regards to the development and ossification process necessary for occipital bone formation, which has only recently been clarified with documentation of the genes and molecular interactions necessary for its formation. Lastly, this improved knowledge might improve our understanding of such congenital derailments as the Chiari malformations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2217-2223
Number of pages7
JournalChild's Nervous System
Volume31
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2015

Fingerprint

Occipital Bone
Embryology
Osteogenesis
Pathology
Genes
Search Engine
Textbooks
Skull Base
Documentation
Bone and Bones
Pregnancy

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

Bernard, Shenell ; Loukas, Marios ; Rizk, Elias ; Oskouian, Rod J. ; Delashaw, Johnny ; Shane Tubbs, R. / The human occipital bone : review and update on its embryology and molecular development. In: Child's Nervous System. 2015 ; Vol. 31, No. 12. pp. 2217-2223.
@article{f4842049e80649d6b7efc47e7372c485,
title = "The human occipital bone: review and update on its embryology and molecular development",
abstract = "Introduction: The formation of the occipital bone is intricate and has been extensively studied with many controversial conclusions, but with minimal effort being focused on the genes and molecular interactions necessary for its formation. A better understanding of this bone of the calvarial and skull base may shed light on pathologies where the occiput is often considered the offending entity. Methods: A review of the germane medical literature using textbooks and standard search engines was performed to gather information about previous conclusions as it pertains to the embryology and ossification of the occipital bone. Results: The occipital bone has both membranous and cartilaginous origin with ossification occurring as early as week 9 of fetal gestation. Its formations is dependent on complex interacts between genes and molecules with pathologies resulting from disruption of this delicate process. Conclusion: There has been much controversy in the past in regards to the development and ossification process necessary for occipital bone formation, which has only recently been clarified with documentation of the genes and molecular interactions necessary for its formation. Lastly, this improved knowledge might improve our understanding of such congenital derailments as the Chiari malformations.",
author = "Shenell Bernard and Marios Loukas and Elias Rizk and Oskouian, {Rod J.} and Johnny Delashaw and {Shane Tubbs}, R.",
year = "2015",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s00381-015-2870-8",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "31",
pages = "2217--2223",
journal = "Child's Nervous System",
issn = "0256-7040",
publisher = "Springer Verlag",
number = "12",

}

Bernard, S, Loukas, M, Rizk, E, Oskouian, RJ, Delashaw, J & Shane Tubbs, R 2015, 'The human occipital bone: review and update on its embryology and molecular development', Child's Nervous System, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 2217-2223. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00381-015-2870-8

The human occipital bone : review and update on its embryology and molecular development. / Bernard, Shenell; Loukas, Marios; Rizk, Elias; Oskouian, Rod J.; Delashaw, Johnny; Shane Tubbs, R.

In: Child's Nervous System, Vol. 31, No. 12, 01.12.2015, p. 2217-2223.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - The human occipital bone

T2 - review and update on its embryology and molecular development

AU - Bernard, Shenell

AU - Loukas, Marios

AU - Rizk, Elias

AU - Oskouian, Rod J.

AU - Delashaw, Johnny

AU - Shane Tubbs, R.

PY - 2015/12/1

Y1 - 2015/12/1

N2 - Introduction: The formation of the occipital bone is intricate and has been extensively studied with many controversial conclusions, but with minimal effort being focused on the genes and molecular interactions necessary for its formation. A better understanding of this bone of the calvarial and skull base may shed light on pathologies where the occiput is often considered the offending entity. Methods: A review of the germane medical literature using textbooks and standard search engines was performed to gather information about previous conclusions as it pertains to the embryology and ossification of the occipital bone. Results: The occipital bone has both membranous and cartilaginous origin with ossification occurring as early as week 9 of fetal gestation. Its formations is dependent on complex interacts between genes and molecules with pathologies resulting from disruption of this delicate process. Conclusion: There has been much controversy in the past in regards to the development and ossification process necessary for occipital bone formation, which has only recently been clarified with documentation of the genes and molecular interactions necessary for its formation. Lastly, this improved knowledge might improve our understanding of such congenital derailments as the Chiari malformations.

AB - Introduction: The formation of the occipital bone is intricate and has been extensively studied with many controversial conclusions, but with minimal effort being focused on the genes and molecular interactions necessary for its formation. A better understanding of this bone of the calvarial and skull base may shed light on pathologies where the occiput is often considered the offending entity. Methods: A review of the germane medical literature using textbooks and standard search engines was performed to gather information about previous conclusions as it pertains to the embryology and ossification of the occipital bone. Results: The occipital bone has both membranous and cartilaginous origin with ossification occurring as early as week 9 of fetal gestation. Its formations is dependent on complex interacts between genes and molecules with pathologies resulting from disruption of this delicate process. Conclusion: There has been much controversy in the past in regards to the development and ossification process necessary for occipital bone formation, which has only recently been clarified with documentation of the genes and molecular interactions necessary for its formation. Lastly, this improved knowledge might improve our understanding of such congenital derailments as the Chiari malformations.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84947044990&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84947044990&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s00381-015-2870-8

DO - 10.1007/s00381-015-2870-8

M3 - Review article

C2 - 26280629

AN - SCOPUS:84947044990

VL - 31

SP - 2217

EP - 2223

JO - Child's Nervous System

JF - Child's Nervous System

SN - 0256-7040

IS - 12

ER -