The impact of graphene properties on GaN and AlN nucleation

Zakaria Y. Al Balushi, Takahira Miyagi, Yu Chuan Lin, Ke Wang, Lazaro Calderin, Ganesh Bhimanapati, Joan Marie Redwing, Joshua Alexander Robinson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

43 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The use of graphene as a template layer for the heteroepitaxy of III-nitrides (GaN and AlN) has gained interest due to the hexagonal arrangement of the sp2 hybridized carbon atoms being similar to the (0001) c-plane of wurtzite GaN. In this study, the nucleation of GaN and AlN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on quasi-free standing epitaxial graphene (EG) was investigated. We observed that the nucleation of AlN and GaN was preferential along the periodic (11¯0n) EG coated step edges and at defects sites on the (0001) terraces due to the enhanced chemical reactivity at those regions. The density of nuclei on the (0001) terraces of EG increased with the incorporation of nitrogen defects into the graphene lattice via NH3 exposure as was evident from surface chemical analysis by XPS. Raman spectral mapping showed that GaN selectively nucleates on regions of few-layered EG as opposed to regions of multi-layered EG. HR-TEM also revealed that the EG underlayers were highly defective in the region of GaN nucleation, however, the GaN nuclei were single crystalline, c-axis oriented and were free of threading dislocations. In contrast, polycrystalline islands of AlN were found to nucleate on EG without producing disorder in the underlying EG.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)81-88
Number of pages8
JournalSurface Science
Volume634
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

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Graphite
Graphene
graphene
Nucleation
nucleation
Chemical reactivity
Defects
nuclei
defects
Metallorganic chemical vapor deposition
chemical analysis
Epitaxial growth
Nitrides
wurtzite
nitrides
metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
Nitrogen
templates
Carbon
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

Al Balushi, Zakaria Y. ; Miyagi, Takahira ; Lin, Yu Chuan ; Wang, Ke ; Calderin, Lazaro ; Bhimanapati, Ganesh ; Redwing, Joan Marie ; Robinson, Joshua Alexander. / The impact of graphene properties on GaN and AlN nucleation. In: Surface Science. 2015 ; Vol. 634. pp. 81-88.
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The impact of graphene properties on GaN and AlN nucleation. / Al Balushi, Zakaria Y.; Miyagi, Takahira; Lin, Yu Chuan; Wang, Ke; Calderin, Lazaro; Bhimanapati, Ganesh; Redwing, Joan Marie; Robinson, Joshua Alexander.

In: Surface Science, Vol. 634, 01.01.2015, p. 81-88.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Al Balushi ZY, Miyagi T, Lin YC, Wang K, Calderin L, Bhimanapati G et al. The impact of graphene properties on GaN and AlN nucleation. Surface Science. 2015 Jan 1;634:81-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.susc.2014.11.020