Objectives:Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and pain often co-occur, introducing clinical challenges and economic burden. Psychological treatments are considered effective for each condition, yet it is not known which therapies have the potential to concurrently address PTSD and pain-related symptoms.Materials and Methods:To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis, databases were searched for articles published between January 2007 and December 2017 describing results from clinical trials of interventions addressing PTSD and pain-related symptoms in adults. Two independent reviewers finalized data extraction and risk of bias assessments. A random-effects model was used for meta-analysis and to calculate pooled and subgroup effect sizes (ESs) of psychological-only (single modality) and multimodal interventions.Results:Eighteen trials (7 uncontrolled, 11 randomized controlled trials, RCTs), totaling 1583 participants, were included in the systematic review. RCT intervention types included exposure-based, cognitive-behavioral, and mindfulness-based therapies. Data from 10 RCTs (N=1, 35) were available for meta-analysis, which demonstrated moderate effect for reduced PTSD severity (ES=-0.55, confidence interval [CI]: -0.83, -0.26) and nonsignificant effect for pain intensity (ES=-0.14, CI: -0.43, 0.15) and pain interference (ES=-0.07, CI: -0.35, 0.20) outcomes. Findings from uncontrolled trials supported meta-analytic results from RCTs. Using GRADE assessment, the quality of evidence was deemed as moderate for RCTs and low for non-RCTs.Discussion:Findings indicated that the majority of the interventions appeared to have a greater impact on reducing PTSD rather than pain-related symptoms. There remains a need to further develop interventions that consistently impact PTSD and pain-related outcomes when these 2 conditions co-occur.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Neurology
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine