The importance of mouse models to define immunovirologic determinants of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

Elizabeth L. Frost, Aron Lukacher

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a severely debilitating and often fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in immunosuppressed individuals caused by JC polyomavirus (JCV), a ubiquitous human pathogen. Demyelination results from lytically infected oligodendrocytes, whose clearance is impaired in the setting of depressed JCV-specific T cell-mediated CNS surveillance. Although mutations in the viral capsid and genomic rearrangements in the viral non-coding region appear to set the stage for PML in the immunosuppressed population, mechanisms of demyelination and CNS antiviral immunity are poorly understood in large part due to absence of a tractable animal model that mimics PML neuropathology in humans. Early studies using mouse polyomavirus (MPyV) in T cell-deficient mice demonstrated productive viral replication in the CNS and demyelination; however, these findings were confounded by spinal cord compression by virus-induced vertebral bone tumors. Here, we review current literature regarding animal models of PML, focusing on current trends in antiviral T cell immunity in non-lymphoid organs, including the CNS. Advances in our understanding of polyomavirus lifecycles, viral and host determinants of persistent infection, and T cell-mediated immunity to viral infections in the CNS warrant revisiting polyomavirus CNS infection in the mouse as a bona fide animal model for JCV-PML.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number00646
JournalFrontiers in immunology
Volume6
Issue numberJAN
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

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Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
Demyelinating Diseases
JC Virus
Central Nervous System
Polyomavirus
T-Lymphocytes
Animal Models
Antiviral Agents
Immunity
Central Nervous System Viral Diseases
Central Nervous System Infections
Spinal Cord Compression
Capsid
Oligodendroglia
Cellular Immunity
Viruses
Bone and Bones
Mutation
Infection
Population

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

Cite this

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abstract = "Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a severely debilitating and often fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in immunosuppressed individuals caused by JC polyomavirus (JCV), a ubiquitous human pathogen. Demyelination results from lytically infected oligodendrocytes, whose clearance is impaired in the setting of depressed JCV-specific T cell-mediated CNS surveillance. Although mutations in the viral capsid and genomic rearrangements in the viral non-coding region appear to set the stage for PML in the immunosuppressed population, mechanisms of demyelination and CNS antiviral immunity are poorly understood in large part due to absence of a tractable animal model that mimics PML neuropathology in humans. Early studies using mouse polyomavirus (MPyV) in T cell-deficient mice demonstrated productive viral replication in the CNS and demyelination; however, these findings were confounded by spinal cord compression by virus-induced vertebral bone tumors. Here, we review current literature regarding animal models of PML, focusing on current trends in antiviral T cell immunity in non-lymphoid organs, including the CNS. Advances in our understanding of polyomavirus lifecycles, viral and host determinants of persistent infection, and T cell-mediated immunity to viral infections in the CNS warrant revisiting polyomavirus CNS infection in the mouse as a bona fide animal model for JCV-PML.",
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The importance of mouse models to define immunovirologic determinants of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. / Frost, Elizabeth L.; Lukacher, Aron.

In: Frontiers in immunology, Vol. 6, No. JAN, 00646, 01.01.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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