The laboca survey of the extended chandra deep field south

Two modes of star formation in active galactic nucleus hosts?

D. Lutz, V. Mainieri, D. Rafferty, L. Shao, G. Hasinger, A. Wei, F. Walter, I. Smail, D. M. Alexander, William Nielsen Brandt, S. Chapman, K. Coppin, N. M. Förster Schreiber, E. Gawiser, R. Genzel, T. R. Greve, R. J. Ivison, A. M. Koekemoer, P. Kurczynski, K. M. Menten & 6 others R. Nordon, P. Popesso, E. Schinnerer, J. D. Silverman, J. Wardlow, Y. Q. Xue

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Abstract

We study the co-existence of star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in Chandra X-ray-selected AGN by analyzing stacked 870 μm submillimeter emission from a deep and wide map of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS), obtained with the LABOCA instrument at the APEX telescope. The total X-ray sample of 895 sources with median redshift z 1 drawn from the combined (E)CDFS X-ray catalogs is detected at >11σ significance at a mean submillimeter flux of 0.49 0.04 mJy, corresponding to a typical star formation rate (SFR) around 30 M yr-1 for a T = 35 K, β = 1.5 graybody far-infrared spectral energy distribution. The good signal-to-noise ratio permits stacking analyses for major subgroups, splitting the sample by redshift, intrinsic luminosity, and AGN obscuration properties. We observe a trend of SFR increasing with redshift. An increase of SFR with AGN luminosity is indicated at the highest L 2-10 keV ≳ 1044 erg s-1 luminosities only. Increasing trends with X-ray obscuration as expected in some AGN evolutionary scenarios are not observed for the bulk of the X-ray AGN sample but may be present for the highest intrinsic luminosity objects with L 2-10 keV ≳ 1044 erg s-1. This behavior suggests a transition between two modes in the co-existence of AGN activity and star formation. For the bulk of the sample, the X-ray luminosity and obscuration of the AGN are not intimately linked to the global SFR of their hosts. The hosts are likely massive and forming stars secularly, at rates similar to the pervasive star formation seen in massive galaxies without an AGN at similar redshifts. In these systems, star formation is not linked to a specific state of the AGN and the period of moderately luminous AGN activity may not highlight a major evolutionary transition of the galaxy. The change indicated toward more intense star formation, and a more pronounced increase in SFRs between unobscured and obscured AGN reported in the literature at highest (L 2-10 keV ≳ 1044 erg s-1) luminosities suggests that these luminous AGNs follow an evolutionary path on which obscured AGN activity and intense star formation are linked, possibly via merging. Comparison to local hard X-ray-selected AGN supports this interpretation. SFRs in the hosts of moderate luminosity AGN at z 1 are an order of magnitude higher than at z 0, following the increase in the non-AGN massive galaxy population. At high AGN luminosities, hosts on the evolutionary link/merger path emerge from this secular level of star formation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1287-1301
Number of pages15
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume712
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2010

Fingerprint

active galactic nuclei
star formation
luminosity
erg
star formation rate
coexistence
occultation
x rays
galaxies
stacking
signal-to-noise ratio
merger
rate
trends
galactic nuclei
subgroups
spectral energy distribution
massive stars
catalogs
energy

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Lutz, D. ; Mainieri, V. ; Rafferty, D. ; Shao, L. ; Hasinger, G. ; Wei, A. ; Walter, F. ; Smail, I. ; Alexander, D. M. ; Brandt, William Nielsen ; Chapman, S. ; Coppin, K. ; Förster Schreiber, N. M. ; Gawiser, E. ; Genzel, R. ; Greve, T. R. ; Ivison, R. J. ; Koekemoer, A. M. ; Kurczynski, P. ; Menten, K. M. ; Nordon, R. ; Popesso, P. ; Schinnerer, E. ; Silverman, J. D. ; Wardlow, J. ; Xue, Y. Q. / The laboca survey of the extended chandra deep field south : Two modes of star formation in active galactic nucleus hosts?. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2010 ; Vol. 712, No. 2. pp. 1287-1301.
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abstract = "We study the co-existence of star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in Chandra X-ray-selected AGN by analyzing stacked 870 μm submillimeter emission from a deep and wide map of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS), obtained with the LABOCA instrument at the APEX telescope. The total X-ray sample of 895 sources with median redshift z 1 drawn from the combined (E)CDFS X-ray catalogs is detected at >11σ significance at a mean submillimeter flux of 0.49 0.04 mJy, corresponding to a typical star formation rate (SFR) around 30 M yr-1 for a T = 35 K, β = 1.5 graybody far-infrared spectral energy distribution. The good signal-to-noise ratio permits stacking analyses for major subgroups, splitting the sample by redshift, intrinsic luminosity, and AGN obscuration properties. We observe a trend of SFR increasing with redshift. An increase of SFR with AGN luminosity is indicated at the highest L 2-10 keV ≳ 1044 erg s-1 luminosities only. Increasing trends with X-ray obscuration as expected in some AGN evolutionary scenarios are not observed for the bulk of the X-ray AGN sample but may be present for the highest intrinsic luminosity objects with L 2-10 keV ≳ 1044 erg s-1. This behavior suggests a transition between two modes in the co-existence of AGN activity and star formation. For the bulk of the sample, the X-ray luminosity and obscuration of the AGN are not intimately linked to the global SFR of their hosts. The hosts are likely massive and forming stars secularly, at rates similar to the pervasive star formation seen in massive galaxies without an AGN at similar redshifts. In these systems, star formation is not linked to a specific state of the AGN and the period of moderately luminous AGN activity may not highlight a major evolutionary transition of the galaxy. The change indicated toward more intense star formation, and a more pronounced increase in SFRs between unobscured and obscured AGN reported in the literature at highest (L 2-10 keV ≳ 1044 erg s-1) luminosities suggests that these luminous AGNs follow an evolutionary path on which obscured AGN activity and intense star formation are linked, possibly via merging. Comparison to local hard X-ray-selected AGN supports this interpretation. SFRs in the hosts of moderate luminosity AGN at z 1 are an order of magnitude higher than at z 0, following the increase in the non-AGN massive galaxy population. At high AGN luminosities, hosts on the evolutionary link/merger path emerge from this secular level of star formation.",
author = "D. Lutz and V. Mainieri and D. Rafferty and L. Shao and G. Hasinger and A. Wei and F. Walter and I. Smail and Alexander, {D. M.} and Brandt, {William Nielsen} and S. Chapman and K. Coppin and {F{\"o}rster Schreiber}, {N. M.} and E. Gawiser and R. Genzel and Greve, {T. R.} and Ivison, {R. J.} and Koekemoer, {A. M.} and P. Kurczynski and Menten, {K. M.} and R. Nordon and P. Popesso and E. Schinnerer and Silverman, {J. D.} and J. Wardlow and Xue, {Y. Q.}",
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Lutz, D, Mainieri, V, Rafferty, D, Shao, L, Hasinger, G, Wei, A, Walter, F, Smail, I, Alexander, DM, Brandt, WN, Chapman, S, Coppin, K, Förster Schreiber, NM, Gawiser, E, Genzel, R, Greve, TR, Ivison, RJ, Koekemoer, AM, Kurczynski, P, Menten, KM, Nordon, R, Popesso, P, Schinnerer, E, Silverman, JD, Wardlow, J & Xue, YQ 2010, 'The laboca survey of the extended chandra deep field south: Two modes of star formation in active galactic nucleus hosts?', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 712, no. 2, pp. 1287-1301. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/712/2/1287

The laboca survey of the extended chandra deep field south : Two modes of star formation in active galactic nucleus hosts? / Lutz, D.; Mainieri, V.; Rafferty, D.; Shao, L.; Hasinger, G.; Wei, A.; Walter, F.; Smail, I.; Alexander, D. M.; Brandt, William Nielsen; Chapman, S.; Coppin, K.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Gawiser, E.; Genzel, R.; Greve, T. R.; Ivison, R. J.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kurczynski, P.; Menten, K. M.; Nordon, R.; Popesso, P.; Schinnerer, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Wardlow, J.; Xue, Y. Q.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 712, No. 2, 01.01.2010, p. 1287-1301.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The laboca survey of the extended chandra deep field south

T2 - Two modes of star formation in active galactic nucleus hosts?

AU - Lutz, D.

AU - Mainieri, V.

AU - Rafferty, D.

AU - Shao, L.

AU - Hasinger, G.

AU - Wei, A.

AU - Walter, F.

AU - Smail, I.

AU - Alexander, D. M.

AU - Brandt, William Nielsen

AU - Chapman, S.

AU - Coppin, K.

AU - Förster Schreiber, N. M.

AU - Gawiser, E.

AU - Genzel, R.

AU - Greve, T. R.

AU - Ivison, R. J.

AU - Koekemoer, A. M.

AU - Kurczynski, P.

AU - Menten, K. M.

AU - Nordon, R.

AU - Popesso, P.

AU - Schinnerer, E.

AU - Silverman, J. D.

AU - Wardlow, J.

AU - Xue, Y. Q.

PY - 2010/1/1

Y1 - 2010/1/1

N2 - We study the co-existence of star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in Chandra X-ray-selected AGN by analyzing stacked 870 μm submillimeter emission from a deep and wide map of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS), obtained with the LABOCA instrument at the APEX telescope. The total X-ray sample of 895 sources with median redshift z 1 drawn from the combined (E)CDFS X-ray catalogs is detected at >11σ significance at a mean submillimeter flux of 0.49 0.04 mJy, corresponding to a typical star formation rate (SFR) around 30 M yr-1 for a T = 35 K, β = 1.5 graybody far-infrared spectral energy distribution. The good signal-to-noise ratio permits stacking analyses for major subgroups, splitting the sample by redshift, intrinsic luminosity, and AGN obscuration properties. We observe a trend of SFR increasing with redshift. An increase of SFR with AGN luminosity is indicated at the highest L 2-10 keV ≳ 1044 erg s-1 luminosities only. Increasing trends with X-ray obscuration as expected in some AGN evolutionary scenarios are not observed for the bulk of the X-ray AGN sample but may be present for the highest intrinsic luminosity objects with L 2-10 keV ≳ 1044 erg s-1. This behavior suggests a transition between two modes in the co-existence of AGN activity and star formation. For the bulk of the sample, the X-ray luminosity and obscuration of the AGN are not intimately linked to the global SFR of their hosts. The hosts are likely massive and forming stars secularly, at rates similar to the pervasive star formation seen in massive galaxies without an AGN at similar redshifts. In these systems, star formation is not linked to a specific state of the AGN and the period of moderately luminous AGN activity may not highlight a major evolutionary transition of the galaxy. The change indicated toward more intense star formation, and a more pronounced increase in SFRs between unobscured and obscured AGN reported in the literature at highest (L 2-10 keV ≳ 1044 erg s-1) luminosities suggests that these luminous AGNs follow an evolutionary path on which obscured AGN activity and intense star formation are linked, possibly via merging. Comparison to local hard X-ray-selected AGN supports this interpretation. SFRs in the hosts of moderate luminosity AGN at z 1 are an order of magnitude higher than at z 0, following the increase in the non-AGN massive galaxy population. At high AGN luminosities, hosts on the evolutionary link/merger path emerge from this secular level of star formation.

AB - We study the co-existence of star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in Chandra X-ray-selected AGN by analyzing stacked 870 μm submillimeter emission from a deep and wide map of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS), obtained with the LABOCA instrument at the APEX telescope. The total X-ray sample of 895 sources with median redshift z 1 drawn from the combined (E)CDFS X-ray catalogs is detected at >11σ significance at a mean submillimeter flux of 0.49 0.04 mJy, corresponding to a typical star formation rate (SFR) around 30 M yr-1 for a T = 35 K, β = 1.5 graybody far-infrared spectral energy distribution. The good signal-to-noise ratio permits stacking analyses for major subgroups, splitting the sample by redshift, intrinsic luminosity, and AGN obscuration properties. We observe a trend of SFR increasing with redshift. An increase of SFR with AGN luminosity is indicated at the highest L 2-10 keV ≳ 1044 erg s-1 luminosities only. Increasing trends with X-ray obscuration as expected in some AGN evolutionary scenarios are not observed for the bulk of the X-ray AGN sample but may be present for the highest intrinsic luminosity objects with L 2-10 keV ≳ 1044 erg s-1. This behavior suggests a transition between two modes in the co-existence of AGN activity and star formation. For the bulk of the sample, the X-ray luminosity and obscuration of the AGN are not intimately linked to the global SFR of their hosts. The hosts are likely massive and forming stars secularly, at rates similar to the pervasive star formation seen in massive galaxies without an AGN at similar redshifts. In these systems, star formation is not linked to a specific state of the AGN and the period of moderately luminous AGN activity may not highlight a major evolutionary transition of the galaxy. The change indicated toward more intense star formation, and a more pronounced increase in SFRs between unobscured and obscured AGN reported in the literature at highest (L 2-10 keV ≳ 1044 erg s-1) luminosities suggests that these luminous AGNs follow an evolutionary path on which obscured AGN activity and intense star formation are linked, possibly via merging. Comparison to local hard X-ray-selected AGN supports this interpretation. SFRs in the hosts of moderate luminosity AGN at z 1 are an order of magnitude higher than at z 0, following the increase in the non-AGN massive galaxy population. At high AGN luminosities, hosts on the evolutionary link/merger path emerge from this secular level of star formation.

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