Lithium conditioning of plasma-facing surfaces has been implemented in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) leading to improvements in plasma performance such as reduced D recycling and a reduction in edge localized modes. Analysis of postmortem tiles and offline experiments along with atomistic modeling has identified interactions between Li-O-D and Li-C-D as chemical channels for deuterium retention in ATJ graphite. However, previous surface chemistry analysis of NSTX tiles were conducted postmortem (i.e., after a completed annual campaign), and it was not possible to correlate the performance of particular discharges with the state of the material surface at the time. Materials Analysis Particle Probe (MAPP) is the first in-vacuo surface analysis diagnostic directly integrated into a tokamak and capable of chemical surface analysis of plasma facing samples retrieved from the vessel in between discharges. It uses X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, direct recoil spectroscopy, low energy ion surface spectroscopy, and thermal desorption spectroscopy to investigate the chemical functionalities between D and lithiated graphite at both the near surface (5-10 nm) and top surface layer (0.3-0.6 nm), respectively. MAPP will correlate plasma facing component surface chemistry with plasma performance and lead the way to improved understanding of plasma-surface interactions and their effect on global plasma performance. Remote operation and data acquisition, integrated into NSTX diagnostic and interlocks, make MAPP an advanced PMI diagnostic with stringent engineering constraints.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Nuclear and High Energy Physics
- Condensed Matter Physics