The milky way tomography with sloan digital sky survey. IV. Dissecting dust

Michael Berry, Željko Ivezić, Branimir Sesar, Mario Jurić, Edward F. Schlafly, Jillian Bellovary, Douglas Finkbeiner, Dijana Vrbanec, Timothy C. Beers, Keira J. Brooks, Donald P. Schneider, Robert R. Gibson, Amy Kimball, Lynne Jones, Peter Yoachim, Simon Krughoff, Andrew J. Connolly, Sarah Loebman, Nicholas A. Bond, David Schlegel & 11 others Julianne Dalcanton, Brian Yanny, Steven R. Majewski, Gillian R. Knapp, James E. Gunn, J. Allyn Smith, Masataka Fukugita, Steve Kent, John Barentine, Jurek Krzesinski, Dan Long

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

We use Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry of 73 million stars to simultaneously constrain best-fit main-sequence stellar spectral energy distribution (SED) and amount of dust extinction along the line of sight toward each star. Using a subsample of 23 million stars with Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) photometry, whose addition enables more robust results, we show that SDSS photometry alone is sufficient to break degeneracies between intrinsic stellar color and dust amount when the shape of extinction curve is fixed. When using both SDSS and 2MASS photometry, the ratio of the total to selective absorption, RV , can be determined with an uncertainty of about 0.1 for most stars in high-extinction regions. These fits enable detailed studies of the dust properties and its spatial distribution, and of the stellar spatial distribution at low Galactic latitudes (|b| < 30°). Our results are in good agreement with the extinction normalization given by the Schlegel etal. (SFD) dust maps at high northern Galactic latitudes, but indicate that the SFD extinction map appears to be consistently overestimated by about 20% in the southern sky, in agreement with recent study by Schlafly etal. The constraints on the shape of the dust extinction curve across the SDSS and 2MASS bandpasses disfavor the reddening law of O'Donnell, but support the models by Fitzpatrick and Cardelli etal. For the latter, we find a ratio of the total to selective absorption to be RV = 3.0 ± 0.1(random)±0.1 (systematic) over most of the high-latitude sky. At low Galactic latitudes (|b| < 5°), we demonstrate that the SFD map cannot be reliably used to correct for extinction because most stars are embedded in dust, rather than behind it, as is the case at high Galactic latitudes. We analyze three-dimensional maps of the best-fit RV and find that RV = 3.1 cannot be ruled out in any of the 10 SEGUE stripes at a precision level of ∼0.1-0.2. Our best estimate for the intrinsic scatter of RV in the regions probed by SEGUE stripes is ∼ 0.2. We introduce a method for efficient selection of candidate red giant stars in the disk, dubbed "dusty parallax relation," which utilizes a correlation between distance and the extinction along the line of sight. We make these best-fit parameters, as well as all the input SDSS and 2MASS data, publicly available in a user-friendly format. These data can be used for studies of stellar number density distribution, the distribution of dust properties, for selecting sources whose SED differs from SEDs for high-latitude main-sequence stars, and for estimating distances to dust clouds and, in turn, to molecular gas clouds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number166
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume757
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2012

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tomography
extinction
dust
photometry
stars
spectral energy distribution
polar regions
line of sight
spatial distribution
stellar color
Southern sky
red giant stars
parallax
main sequence stars
curves
molecular gases
format
energy
density distribution
sky

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Berry, M., Ivezić, Ž., Sesar, B., Jurić, M., Schlafly, E. F., Bellovary, J., ... Long, D. (2012). The milky way tomography with sloan digital sky survey. IV. Dissecting dust. Astrophysical Journal, 757(2), [166]. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/757/2/166
Berry, Michael ; Ivezić, Željko ; Sesar, Branimir ; Jurić, Mario ; Schlafly, Edward F. ; Bellovary, Jillian ; Finkbeiner, Douglas ; Vrbanec, Dijana ; Beers, Timothy C. ; Brooks, Keira J. ; Schneider, Donald P. ; Gibson, Robert R. ; Kimball, Amy ; Jones, Lynne ; Yoachim, Peter ; Krughoff, Simon ; Connolly, Andrew J. ; Loebman, Sarah ; Bond, Nicholas A. ; Schlegel, David ; Dalcanton, Julianne ; Yanny, Brian ; Majewski, Steven R. ; Knapp, Gillian R. ; Gunn, James E. ; Smith, J. Allyn ; Fukugita, Masataka ; Kent, Steve ; Barentine, John ; Krzesinski, Jurek ; Long, Dan. / The milky way tomography with sloan digital sky survey. IV. Dissecting dust. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2012 ; Vol. 757, No. 2.
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Berry, M, Ivezić, Ž, Sesar, B, Jurić, M, Schlafly, EF, Bellovary, J, Finkbeiner, D, Vrbanec, D, Beers, TC, Brooks, KJ, Schneider, DP, Gibson, RR, Kimball, A, Jones, L, Yoachim, P, Krughoff, S, Connolly, AJ, Loebman, S, Bond, NA, Schlegel, D, Dalcanton, J, Yanny, B, Majewski, SR, Knapp, GR, Gunn, JE, Smith, JA, Fukugita, M, Kent, S, Barentine, J, Krzesinski, J & Long, D 2012, 'The milky way tomography with sloan digital sky survey. IV. Dissecting dust', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 757, no. 2, 166. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/757/2/166

The milky way tomography with sloan digital sky survey. IV. Dissecting dust. / Berry, Michael; Ivezić, Željko; Sesar, Branimir; Jurić, Mario; Schlafly, Edward F.; Bellovary, Jillian; Finkbeiner, Douglas; Vrbanec, Dijana; Beers, Timothy C.; Brooks, Keira J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Gibson, Robert R.; Kimball, Amy; Jones, Lynne; Yoachim, Peter; Krughoff, Simon; Connolly, Andrew J.; Loebman, Sarah; Bond, Nicholas A.; Schlegel, David; Dalcanton, Julianne; Yanny, Brian; Majewski, Steven R.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Gunn, James E.; Smith, J. Allyn; Fukugita, Masataka; Kent, Steve; Barentine, John; Krzesinski, Jurek; Long, Dan.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 757, No. 2, 166, 01.10.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The milky way tomography with sloan digital sky survey. IV. Dissecting dust

AU - Berry, Michael

AU - Ivezić, Željko

AU - Sesar, Branimir

AU - Jurić, Mario

AU - Schlafly, Edward F.

AU - Bellovary, Jillian

AU - Finkbeiner, Douglas

AU - Vrbanec, Dijana

AU - Beers, Timothy C.

AU - Brooks, Keira J.

AU - Schneider, Donald P.

AU - Gibson, Robert R.

AU - Kimball, Amy

AU - Jones, Lynne

AU - Yoachim, Peter

AU - Krughoff, Simon

AU - Connolly, Andrew J.

AU - Loebman, Sarah

AU - Bond, Nicholas A.

AU - Schlegel, David

AU - Dalcanton, Julianne

AU - Yanny, Brian

AU - Majewski, Steven R.

AU - Knapp, Gillian R.

AU - Gunn, James E.

AU - Smith, J. Allyn

AU - Fukugita, Masataka

AU - Kent, Steve

AU - Barentine, John

AU - Krzesinski, Jurek

AU - Long, Dan

PY - 2012/10/1

Y1 - 2012/10/1

N2 - We use Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry of 73 million stars to simultaneously constrain best-fit main-sequence stellar spectral energy distribution (SED) and amount of dust extinction along the line of sight toward each star. Using a subsample of 23 million stars with Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) photometry, whose addition enables more robust results, we show that SDSS photometry alone is sufficient to break degeneracies between intrinsic stellar color and dust amount when the shape of extinction curve is fixed. When using both SDSS and 2MASS photometry, the ratio of the total to selective absorption, RV , can be determined with an uncertainty of about 0.1 for most stars in high-extinction regions. These fits enable detailed studies of the dust properties and its spatial distribution, and of the stellar spatial distribution at low Galactic latitudes (|b| < 30°). Our results are in good agreement with the extinction normalization given by the Schlegel etal. (SFD) dust maps at high northern Galactic latitudes, but indicate that the SFD extinction map appears to be consistently overestimated by about 20% in the southern sky, in agreement with recent study by Schlafly etal. The constraints on the shape of the dust extinction curve across the SDSS and 2MASS bandpasses disfavor the reddening law of O'Donnell, but support the models by Fitzpatrick and Cardelli etal. For the latter, we find a ratio of the total to selective absorption to be RV = 3.0 ± 0.1(random)±0.1 (systematic) over most of the high-latitude sky. At low Galactic latitudes (|b| < 5°), we demonstrate that the SFD map cannot be reliably used to correct for extinction because most stars are embedded in dust, rather than behind it, as is the case at high Galactic latitudes. We analyze three-dimensional maps of the best-fit RV and find that RV = 3.1 cannot be ruled out in any of the 10 SEGUE stripes at a precision level of ∼0.1-0.2. Our best estimate for the intrinsic scatter of RV in the regions probed by SEGUE stripes is ∼ 0.2. We introduce a method for efficient selection of candidate red giant stars in the disk, dubbed "dusty parallax relation," which utilizes a correlation between distance and the extinction along the line of sight. We make these best-fit parameters, as well as all the input SDSS and 2MASS data, publicly available in a user-friendly format. These data can be used for studies of stellar number density distribution, the distribution of dust properties, for selecting sources whose SED differs from SEDs for high-latitude main-sequence stars, and for estimating distances to dust clouds and, in turn, to molecular gas clouds.

AB - We use Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry of 73 million stars to simultaneously constrain best-fit main-sequence stellar spectral energy distribution (SED) and amount of dust extinction along the line of sight toward each star. Using a subsample of 23 million stars with Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) photometry, whose addition enables more robust results, we show that SDSS photometry alone is sufficient to break degeneracies between intrinsic stellar color and dust amount when the shape of extinction curve is fixed. When using both SDSS and 2MASS photometry, the ratio of the total to selective absorption, RV , can be determined with an uncertainty of about 0.1 for most stars in high-extinction regions. These fits enable detailed studies of the dust properties and its spatial distribution, and of the stellar spatial distribution at low Galactic latitudes (|b| < 30°). Our results are in good agreement with the extinction normalization given by the Schlegel etal. (SFD) dust maps at high northern Galactic latitudes, but indicate that the SFD extinction map appears to be consistently overestimated by about 20% in the southern sky, in agreement with recent study by Schlafly etal. The constraints on the shape of the dust extinction curve across the SDSS and 2MASS bandpasses disfavor the reddening law of O'Donnell, but support the models by Fitzpatrick and Cardelli etal. For the latter, we find a ratio of the total to selective absorption to be RV = 3.0 ± 0.1(random)±0.1 (systematic) over most of the high-latitude sky. At low Galactic latitudes (|b| < 5°), we demonstrate that the SFD map cannot be reliably used to correct for extinction because most stars are embedded in dust, rather than behind it, as is the case at high Galactic latitudes. We analyze three-dimensional maps of the best-fit RV and find that RV = 3.1 cannot be ruled out in any of the 10 SEGUE stripes at a precision level of ∼0.1-0.2. Our best estimate for the intrinsic scatter of RV in the regions probed by SEGUE stripes is ∼ 0.2. We introduce a method for efficient selection of candidate red giant stars in the disk, dubbed "dusty parallax relation," which utilizes a correlation between distance and the extinction along the line of sight. We make these best-fit parameters, as well as all the input SDSS and 2MASS data, publicly available in a user-friendly format. These data can be used for studies of stellar number density distribution, the distribution of dust properties, for selecting sources whose SED differs from SEDs for high-latitude main-sequence stars, and for estimating distances to dust clouds and, in turn, to molecular gas clouds.

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Berry M, Ivezić Ž, Sesar B, Jurić M, Schlafly EF, Bellovary J et al. The milky way tomography with sloan digital sky survey. IV. Dissecting dust. Astrophysical Journal. 2012 Oct 1;757(2). 166. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/757/2/166