The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment

Johannes Verlinde, Jerry Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg & 9 others P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, Scott James Richardson, Chad Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, R. Schofield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) was conducted from 27 September through 22 October 2004 over the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) on the North Slope of Alaska. The primary objectives were to collect a dataset suitable to study interactions between microphysics, dynamics, and radiative transfer in mixed-phase Arctic clouds, and to develop/ evaluate cloud property retrievals from surface-and satellite-based remote sensing instruments. Observations taken during the 1977/98 Surface Heat and Energy Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) experiment revealed that Arctic clouds frequently consist of one (or more) liquid layers precipitating ice. M-PACE sought to investigate the physical processes of these clouds by utilizing two aircraft (an in situ aircraft to characterize the microphysical properties of the clouds and a remote sensing aircraft to constraint the upwelling radiation) over the ACRF site on the North Slope of Alaska. The measurements successfully documented the microphysical structure of Arctic mixed-phase clouds, with multiple in situ profiles collected in both single- and multilayer clouds over two ground-based remote sensing sites. Liquid was found in clouds with cloud-top temperatures as cold as -30°C, with the coldest cloud-top temperature warmer than -40°C sampled by the aircraft. Remote sensing instruments suggest that ice was present in low concentrations, mostly concentrated in precipitation shafts, although there are indications of light ice precipitation present below the optically thick single-layer clouds. The prevalence of liquid down to these low temperatures potentially could be explained by the relatively low measured ice nuclei concentrations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)205-221
Number of pages17
JournalBulletin of the American Meteorological Society
Volume88
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2007

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experiment
aircraft
remote sensing
ice
liquid
heat budget
climate
energy budget
shaft
radiative transfer
upwelling
temperature
energy
radiation
cold
in situ

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atmospheric Science

Cite this

Verlinde, J., Harrington, J. Y., McFarquhar, G. M., Yannuzzi, V. T., Avramov, A., Greenberg, S., ... Schofield, R. (2007). The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 88(2), 205-221. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-88-2-205
Verlinde, Johannes ; Harrington, Jerry Y. ; McFarquhar, G. M. ; Yannuzzi, V. T. ; Avramov, A. ; Greenberg, S. ; Johnson, N. ; Zhang, G. ; Poellot, M. R. ; Mather, J. H. ; Turner, D. D. ; Eloranta, E. W. ; Zak, B. D. ; Prenni, A. J. ; Daniel, J. S. ; Kok, G. L. ; Tobin, D. C. ; Holz, R. ; Sassen, K. ; Spangenberg, D. ; Minnis, P. ; Tooman, T. P. ; Ivey, M. D. ; Richardson, Scott James ; Bahrmann, Chad ; Shupe, M. ; DeMott, P. J. ; Heymsfield, A. J. ; Schofield, R. / The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment. In: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 2007 ; Vol. 88, No. 2. pp. 205-221.
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Verlinde, J, Harrington, JY, McFarquhar, GM, Yannuzzi, VT, Avramov, A, Greenberg, S, Johnson, N, Zhang, G, Poellot, MR, Mather, JH, Turner, DD, Eloranta, EW, Zak, BD, Prenni, AJ, Daniel, JS, Kok, GL, Tobin, DC, Holz, R, Sassen, K, Spangenberg, D, Minnis, P, Tooman, TP, Ivey, MD, Richardson, SJ, Bahrmann, C, Shupe, M, DeMott, PJ, Heymsfield, AJ & Schofield, R 2007, 'The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment', Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 205-221. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-88-2-205

The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment. / Verlinde, Johannes; Harrington, Jerry Y.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Yannuzzi, V. T.; Avramov, A.; Greenberg, S.; Johnson, N.; Zhang, G.; Poellot, M. R.; Mather, J. H.; Turner, D. D.; Eloranta, E. W.; Zak, B. D.; Prenni, A. J.; Daniel, J. S.; Kok, G. L.; Tobin, D. C.; Holz, R.; Sassen, K.; Spangenberg, D.; Minnis, P.; Tooman, T. P.; Ivey, M. D.; Richardson, Scott James; Bahrmann, Chad; Shupe, M.; DeMott, P. J.; Heymsfield, A. J.; Schofield, R.

In: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 88, No. 2, 01.02.2007, p. 205-221.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment

AU - Verlinde, Johannes

AU - Harrington, Jerry Y.

AU - McFarquhar, G. M.

AU - Yannuzzi, V. T.

AU - Avramov, A.

AU - Greenberg, S.

AU - Johnson, N.

AU - Zhang, G.

AU - Poellot, M. R.

AU - Mather, J. H.

AU - Turner, D. D.

AU - Eloranta, E. W.

AU - Zak, B. D.

AU - Prenni, A. J.

AU - Daniel, J. S.

AU - Kok, G. L.

AU - Tobin, D. C.

AU - Holz, R.

AU - Sassen, K.

AU - Spangenberg, D.

AU - Minnis, P.

AU - Tooman, T. P.

AU - Ivey, M. D.

AU - Richardson, Scott James

AU - Bahrmann, Chad

AU - Shupe, M.

AU - DeMott, P. J.

AU - Heymsfield, A. J.

AU - Schofield, R.

PY - 2007/2/1

Y1 - 2007/2/1

N2 - The Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) was conducted from 27 September through 22 October 2004 over the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) on the North Slope of Alaska. The primary objectives were to collect a dataset suitable to study interactions between microphysics, dynamics, and radiative transfer in mixed-phase Arctic clouds, and to develop/ evaluate cloud property retrievals from surface-and satellite-based remote sensing instruments. Observations taken during the 1977/98 Surface Heat and Energy Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) experiment revealed that Arctic clouds frequently consist of one (or more) liquid layers precipitating ice. M-PACE sought to investigate the physical processes of these clouds by utilizing two aircraft (an in situ aircraft to characterize the microphysical properties of the clouds and a remote sensing aircraft to constraint the upwelling radiation) over the ACRF site on the North Slope of Alaska. The measurements successfully documented the microphysical structure of Arctic mixed-phase clouds, with multiple in situ profiles collected in both single- and multilayer clouds over two ground-based remote sensing sites. Liquid was found in clouds with cloud-top temperatures as cold as -30°C, with the coldest cloud-top temperature warmer than -40°C sampled by the aircraft. Remote sensing instruments suggest that ice was present in low concentrations, mostly concentrated in precipitation shafts, although there are indications of light ice precipitation present below the optically thick single-layer clouds. The prevalence of liquid down to these low temperatures potentially could be explained by the relatively low measured ice nuclei concentrations.

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