The multi-object, fiber-fed spectrographs for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

Stephen A. Smee, James E. Gunn, Alan Uomoto, Natalie Roe, David Schlegel, Constance M. Rockosi, Michael A. Carr, French Leger, Kyle S. Dawson, Matthew D. Olmstead, Jon Brinkmann, Russell Owen, Robert H. Barkhouser, Klaus Honscheid, Paul Harding, Dan Long, Robert H. Lupton, Craig Loomis, Lauren Anderson, James AnnisMariangela Bernardi, Vaishali Bhardwaj, Dmitry Bizyaev, Adam S. Bolton, Howard Brewington, John W. Briggs, Scott Burles, James G. Burns, Francisco Javier Castander, Andrew Connolly, James R.A. Davenport, Garrett Ebelke, Harland Epps, Paul D. Feldman, Scott D. Friedman, Joshua Frieman, Timothy Heckman, Charles L. Hull, Gillian R. Knapp, David M. Lawrence, Jon Loveday, Edward J. Mannery, Elena Malanushenko, Viktor Malanushenko, Aronne James Merrelli, Demitri Muna, Peter R. Newman, Robert C. Nichol, Daniel Oravetz, Kaike Pan, Adrian C. Pope, Paul G. Ricketts, Alaina Shelden, Dale Sandford, Walter Siegmund, Simmons Audrey Simmons, D. Shane Smith, Stephanie Snedden, Donald P. Schneider, Mark Subba Rao, Christy Tremonti, Patrick Waddell, Donald G. York

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455 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present the design and performance of the multi-object fiber spectrographs for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and their upgrade for the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Originally commissioned in Fall 1999 on the 2.5 m aperture Sloan Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, the spectrographs produced more than 1.5 million spectra for the SDSS and SDSS-II surveys, enabling a wide variety of Galactic and extra-galactic science including the first observation of baryon acoustic oscillations in 2005. The spectrographs were upgraded in 2009 and are currently in use for BOSS, the flagship survey of the third-generation SDSS-III project. BOSS will measure redshifts of 1.35 million massive galaxies to redshift 0.7 and Lyα absorption of 160,000 high redshift quasars over 10,000 deg2 of sky, making percent level measurements of the absolute cosmic distance scale of the universe and placing tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy. The twin multi-object fiber spectrographs utilize a simple optical layout with reflective collimators, gratings, all-refractive cameras, and state-of-the-art CCD detectors to produce hundreds of spectra simultaneously in two channels over a bandpass covering the near-ultraviolet to the near-infrared, with a resolving power R = λ/FWHM ∼ 2000. Building on proven heritage, the spectrographs were upgraded for BOSS with volume-phase holographic gratings and modern CCD detectors, improving the peak throughput by nearly a factor of two, extending the bandpass to cover 360 nm < λ < 1000 nm, and increasing the number of fibers from 640 to 1000 per exposure. In this paper we describe the original SDSS spectrograph design and the upgrades implemented for BOSS, and document the predicted and measured performances.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number32
JournalAstronomical Journal
Volume146
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2013

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spectrographs
baryons
oscillation
oscillations
fibers
charge coupled devices
gratings
detectors
collimators
fibre
dark energy
layouts
quasars
sky
observatories
coverings
equations of state
universe
apertures
cameras

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Smee, Stephen A. ; Gunn, James E. ; Uomoto, Alan ; Roe, Natalie ; Schlegel, David ; Rockosi, Constance M. ; Carr, Michael A. ; Leger, French ; Dawson, Kyle S. ; Olmstead, Matthew D. ; Brinkmann, Jon ; Owen, Russell ; Barkhouser, Robert H. ; Honscheid, Klaus ; Harding, Paul ; Long, Dan ; Lupton, Robert H. ; Loomis, Craig ; Anderson, Lauren ; Annis, James ; Bernardi, Mariangela ; Bhardwaj, Vaishali ; Bizyaev, Dmitry ; Bolton, Adam S. ; Brewington, Howard ; Briggs, John W. ; Burles, Scott ; Burns, James G. ; Castander, Francisco Javier ; Connolly, Andrew ; Davenport, James R.A. ; Ebelke, Garrett ; Epps, Harland ; Feldman, Paul D. ; Friedman, Scott D. ; Frieman, Joshua ; Heckman, Timothy ; Hull, Charles L. ; Knapp, Gillian R. ; Lawrence, David M. ; Loveday, Jon ; Mannery, Edward J. ; Malanushenko, Elena ; Malanushenko, Viktor ; Merrelli, Aronne James ; Muna, Demitri ; Newman, Peter R. ; Nichol, Robert C. ; Oravetz, Daniel ; Pan, Kaike ; Pope, Adrian C. ; Ricketts, Paul G. ; Shelden, Alaina ; Sandford, Dale ; Siegmund, Walter ; Audrey Simmons, Simmons ; Shane Smith, D. ; Snedden, Stephanie ; Schneider, Donald P. ; Rao, Mark Subba ; Tremonti, Christy ; Waddell, Patrick ; York, Donald G. / The multi-object, fiber-fed spectrographs for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. In: Astronomical Journal. 2013 ; Vol. 146, No. 2.
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abstract = "We present the design and performance of the multi-object fiber spectrographs for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and their upgrade for the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Originally commissioned in Fall 1999 on the 2.5 m aperture Sloan Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, the spectrographs produced more than 1.5 million spectra for the SDSS and SDSS-II surveys, enabling a wide variety of Galactic and extra-galactic science including the first observation of baryon acoustic oscillations in 2005. The spectrographs were upgraded in 2009 and are currently in use for BOSS, the flagship survey of the third-generation SDSS-III project. BOSS will measure redshifts of 1.35 million massive galaxies to redshift 0.7 and Lyα absorption of 160,000 high redshift quasars over 10,000 deg2 of sky, making percent level measurements of the absolute cosmic distance scale of the universe and placing tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy. The twin multi-object fiber spectrographs utilize a simple optical layout with reflective collimators, gratings, all-refractive cameras, and state-of-the-art CCD detectors to produce hundreds of spectra simultaneously in two channels over a bandpass covering the near-ultraviolet to the near-infrared, with a resolving power R = λ/FWHM ∼ 2000. Building on proven heritage, the spectrographs were upgraded for BOSS with volume-phase holographic gratings and modern CCD detectors, improving the peak throughput by nearly a factor of two, extending the bandpass to cover 360 nm < λ < 1000 nm, and increasing the number of fibers from 640 to 1000 per exposure. In this paper we describe the original SDSS spectrograph design and the upgrades implemented for BOSS, and document the predicted and measured performances.",
author = "Smee, {Stephen A.} and Gunn, {James E.} and Alan Uomoto and Natalie Roe and David Schlegel and Rockosi, {Constance M.} and Carr, {Michael A.} and French Leger and Dawson, {Kyle S.} and Olmstead, {Matthew D.} and Jon Brinkmann and Russell Owen and Barkhouser, {Robert H.} and Klaus Honscheid and Paul Harding and Dan Long and Lupton, {Robert H.} and Craig Loomis and Lauren Anderson and James Annis and Mariangela Bernardi and Vaishali Bhardwaj and Dmitry Bizyaev and Bolton, {Adam S.} and Howard Brewington and Briggs, {John W.} and Scott Burles and Burns, {James G.} and Castander, {Francisco Javier} and Andrew Connolly and Davenport, {James R.A.} and Garrett Ebelke and Harland Epps and Feldman, {Paul D.} and Friedman, {Scott D.} and Joshua Frieman and Timothy Heckman and Hull, {Charles L.} and Knapp, {Gillian R.} and Lawrence, {David M.} and Jon Loveday and Mannery, {Edward J.} and Elena Malanushenko and Viktor Malanushenko and Merrelli, {Aronne James} and Demitri Muna and Newman, {Peter R.} and Nichol, {Robert C.} and Daniel Oravetz and Kaike Pan and Pope, {Adrian C.} and Ricketts, {Paul G.} and Alaina Shelden and Dale Sandford and Walter Siegmund and {Audrey Simmons}, Simmons and {Shane Smith}, D. and Stephanie Snedden and Schneider, {Donald P.} and Rao, {Mark Subba} and Christy Tremonti and Patrick Waddell and York, {Donald G.}",
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Smee, SA, Gunn, JE, Uomoto, A, Roe, N, Schlegel, D, Rockosi, CM, Carr, MA, Leger, F, Dawson, KS, Olmstead, MD, Brinkmann, J, Owen, R, Barkhouser, RH, Honscheid, K, Harding, P, Long, D, Lupton, RH, Loomis, C, Anderson, L, Annis, J, Bernardi, M, Bhardwaj, V, Bizyaev, D, Bolton, AS, Brewington, H, Briggs, JW, Burles, S, Burns, JG, Castander, FJ, Connolly, A, Davenport, JRA, Ebelke, G, Epps, H, Feldman, PD, Friedman, SD, Frieman, J, Heckman, T, Hull, CL, Knapp, GR, Lawrence, DM, Loveday, J, Mannery, EJ, Malanushenko, E, Malanushenko, V, Merrelli, AJ, Muna, D, Newman, PR, Nichol, RC, Oravetz, D, Pan, K, Pope, AC, Ricketts, PG, Shelden, A, Sandford, D, Siegmund, W, Audrey Simmons, S, Shane Smith, D, Snedden, S, Schneider, DP, Rao, MS, Tremonti, C, Waddell, P & York, DG 2013, 'The multi-object, fiber-fed spectrographs for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey', Astronomical Journal, vol. 146, no. 2, 32. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-6256/146/2/32

The multi-object, fiber-fed spectrographs for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. / Smee, Stephen A.; Gunn, James E.; Uomoto, Alan; Roe, Natalie; Schlegel, David; Rockosi, Constance M.; Carr, Michael A.; Leger, French; Dawson, Kyle S.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Brinkmann, Jon; Owen, Russell; Barkhouser, Robert H.; Honscheid, Klaus; Harding, Paul; Long, Dan; Lupton, Robert H.; Loomis, Craig; Anderson, Lauren; Annis, James; Bernardi, Mariangela; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Bolton, Adam S.; Brewington, Howard; Briggs, John W.; Burles, Scott; Burns, James G.; Castander, Francisco Javier; Connolly, Andrew; Davenport, James R.A.; Ebelke, Garrett; Epps, Harland; Feldman, Paul D.; Friedman, Scott D.; Frieman, Joshua; Heckman, Timothy; Hull, Charles L.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Lawrence, David M.; Loveday, Jon; Mannery, Edward J.; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Merrelli, Aronne James; Muna, Demitri; Newman, Peter R.; Nichol, Robert C.; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Pope, Adrian C.; Ricketts, Paul G.; Shelden, Alaina; Sandford, Dale; Siegmund, Walter; Audrey Simmons, Simmons; Shane Smith, D.; Snedden, Stephanie; Schneider, Donald P.; Rao, Mark Subba; Tremonti, Christy; Waddell, Patrick; York, Donald G.

In: Astronomical Journal, Vol. 146, No. 2, 32, 01.08.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The multi-object, fiber-fed spectrographs for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

AU - Smee, Stephen A.

AU - Gunn, James E.

AU - Uomoto, Alan

AU - Roe, Natalie

AU - Schlegel, David

AU - Rockosi, Constance M.

AU - Carr, Michael A.

AU - Leger, French

AU - Dawson, Kyle S.

AU - Olmstead, Matthew D.

AU - Brinkmann, Jon

AU - Owen, Russell

AU - Barkhouser, Robert H.

AU - Honscheid, Klaus

AU - Harding, Paul

AU - Long, Dan

AU - Lupton, Robert H.

AU - Loomis, Craig

AU - Anderson, Lauren

AU - Annis, James

AU - Bernardi, Mariangela

AU - Bhardwaj, Vaishali

AU - Bizyaev, Dmitry

AU - Bolton, Adam S.

AU - Brewington, Howard

AU - Briggs, John W.

AU - Burles, Scott

AU - Burns, James G.

AU - Castander, Francisco Javier

AU - Connolly, Andrew

AU - Davenport, James R.A.

AU - Ebelke, Garrett

AU - Epps, Harland

AU - Feldman, Paul D.

AU - Friedman, Scott D.

AU - Frieman, Joshua

AU - Heckman, Timothy

AU - Hull, Charles L.

AU - Knapp, Gillian R.

AU - Lawrence, David M.

AU - Loveday, Jon

AU - Mannery, Edward J.

AU - Malanushenko, Elena

AU - Malanushenko, Viktor

AU - Merrelli, Aronne James

AU - Muna, Demitri

AU - Newman, Peter R.

AU - Nichol, Robert C.

AU - Oravetz, Daniel

AU - Pan, Kaike

AU - Pope, Adrian C.

AU - Ricketts, Paul G.

AU - Shelden, Alaina

AU - Sandford, Dale

AU - Siegmund, Walter

AU - Audrey Simmons, Simmons

AU - Shane Smith, D.

AU - Snedden, Stephanie

AU - Schneider, Donald P.

AU - Rao, Mark Subba

AU - Tremonti, Christy

AU - Waddell, Patrick

AU - York, Donald G.

PY - 2013/8/1

Y1 - 2013/8/1

N2 - We present the design and performance of the multi-object fiber spectrographs for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and their upgrade for the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Originally commissioned in Fall 1999 on the 2.5 m aperture Sloan Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, the spectrographs produced more than 1.5 million spectra for the SDSS and SDSS-II surveys, enabling a wide variety of Galactic and extra-galactic science including the first observation of baryon acoustic oscillations in 2005. The spectrographs were upgraded in 2009 and are currently in use for BOSS, the flagship survey of the third-generation SDSS-III project. BOSS will measure redshifts of 1.35 million massive galaxies to redshift 0.7 and Lyα absorption of 160,000 high redshift quasars over 10,000 deg2 of sky, making percent level measurements of the absolute cosmic distance scale of the universe and placing tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy. The twin multi-object fiber spectrographs utilize a simple optical layout with reflective collimators, gratings, all-refractive cameras, and state-of-the-art CCD detectors to produce hundreds of spectra simultaneously in two channels over a bandpass covering the near-ultraviolet to the near-infrared, with a resolving power R = λ/FWHM ∼ 2000. Building on proven heritage, the spectrographs were upgraded for BOSS with volume-phase holographic gratings and modern CCD detectors, improving the peak throughput by nearly a factor of two, extending the bandpass to cover 360 nm < λ < 1000 nm, and increasing the number of fibers from 640 to 1000 per exposure. In this paper we describe the original SDSS spectrograph design and the upgrades implemented for BOSS, and document the predicted and measured performances.

AB - We present the design and performance of the multi-object fiber spectrographs for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and their upgrade for the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Originally commissioned in Fall 1999 on the 2.5 m aperture Sloan Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, the spectrographs produced more than 1.5 million spectra for the SDSS and SDSS-II surveys, enabling a wide variety of Galactic and extra-galactic science including the first observation of baryon acoustic oscillations in 2005. The spectrographs were upgraded in 2009 and are currently in use for BOSS, the flagship survey of the third-generation SDSS-III project. BOSS will measure redshifts of 1.35 million massive galaxies to redshift 0.7 and Lyα absorption of 160,000 high redshift quasars over 10,000 deg2 of sky, making percent level measurements of the absolute cosmic distance scale of the universe and placing tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy. The twin multi-object fiber spectrographs utilize a simple optical layout with reflective collimators, gratings, all-refractive cameras, and state-of-the-art CCD detectors to produce hundreds of spectra simultaneously in two channels over a bandpass covering the near-ultraviolet to the near-infrared, with a resolving power R = λ/FWHM ∼ 2000. Building on proven heritage, the spectrographs were upgraded for BOSS with volume-phase holographic gratings and modern CCD detectors, improving the peak throughput by nearly a factor of two, extending the bandpass to cover 360 nm < λ < 1000 nm, and increasing the number of fibers from 640 to 1000 per exposure. In this paper we describe the original SDSS spectrograph design and the upgrades implemented for BOSS, and document the predicted and measured performances.

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