We present a flux-resolved X-ray analysis of the dwarf Seyfert 1.8 galaxy NGC 4395, based on three archival XMM-Newton and one archival NuSTAR observations. The source is known to harbor a low-mass black hole (∼ 104-afew× 105M) and shows strong variability in the full X-ray range during these observations. We model the flux-resolved spectra of the source assuming three absorbing layers: neutral, mildly ionized, and highly ionized (NH∼ 1.6× 1022- 3.4× 1023cm-2∼ 0.8-7.8×1022cm-2, and 3.8 × 1022 cm-2, respectively). The source also shows intrinsic variability by a factor of ∼3 on short timescales, which is due to changes in the nuclear flux, assumed to be a power law (Γ = 1.6-1.67). Our results show a positive correlation between the intrinsic flux and the absorbers' ionization parameter. The covering fraction of the neutral absorber varies during the first XMM-Newton observation, which could explain the pronounced soft X-ray variability. However, the source remains fully covered by this layer during the other two observations, largely suppressing the soft X-ray variability. This suggests an inhomogeneous and layered structure in the broad-line region. We also find a difference in the characteristic timescale of the power spectra between different energy ranges and observations. We finally show simulated spectra with XRISM, eXTP, and Athena, which will allow us to characterize the different absorbers, study their dynamics, and will help us identify their locations and sizes.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science