Recent studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) signaling plays a crucial role in memory consolidation of Pavlovian fear conditioning and in synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala (LA). In the present experiments, we examined the role of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), a downstream effector of NO, in fear memory consolidation and long-term potentiation (LTP) at thalamic and cortical input pathways to the LA. In behavioral experiments, rats given intra-LA infusions of either the PKG inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS or the PKG activator 8-Br-cGMP exhibited dose-dependent impairments or enhancements of fear memory consolidation, respectively. In slice electrophysiology experiments, bath application of Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS or the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor LY83583 impaired LTP at thalamic, but not cortical inputs to the LA, while bath application of 8-Br-cGMP or the guanylyl cyclase activator YC-1 resulted in enhanced LTP at thalamic inputs to the LA. Interestingly, YC-1-induced enhancement of LTP in the LA was reversed by concurrent application of the MEK inhibitor U0126, suggesting that the NO-cGMP-PKG signaling pathway may promote synaptic plasticity and fear memory formation in the LA, in part by activating the ERK/MAPK signaling cascade. As a test of this hypothesis, we next showed that rats given intra-LA infusion of the PKG inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS or the PKG activator 8-Br-cGMP exhibit impaired or enhanced activation, respectively, of ERK/MAPK in the LA after fear conditioning. Collectively, our findings suggest that an NO-cGMP-PKG-dependent form of synaptic plasticity at thalamic input synapses to the LA may underlie memory consolidation of Pavlovian fear conditioning, in part, via activation of the ERK/MAPK signaling cascade.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
- Cognitive Neuroscience
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience