The noise performance of electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices at X-ray energies

James Henry Tutt, Andrew D. Holland, David J. Hall, Richard D. Harriss, Neil J. Murray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices (EM-CCDs) are used in low-light-level (L3) applications for detecting optical, ultraviolet, and near-infrared photons (10-1100 nm). The on-chip gain process is able to increase the detectability of any signal collected by the device through the multiplication of the signal before the output node. Thus, the effective readout noise can be reduced to subelectron levels, allowing the detection of single photons. However, this gain process introduces an additional noise component due to the stochastic nature of the multiplication. In optical applications, this additional noise has been characterized. The broadening of the detected peak is described by the excess noise factor. This factor tends to a value of √2 at high gain (>100x). In X-ray applications, the situation is improved by the effect that Fano factor f has on the shot noise associated with X-ray photon detection ( f ≈ 0.12} at X-ray energies). In this paper, the effect of the detection of X-ray photons in silicon is assessed both analytically and through a Monte Carlo model of the gain amplification process. The excess noise on the signal is predicted (termed the modified Fano factor) for photon detection in an EM-CCD at X-ray energies. A hypothesis is made that the modified Fano factor should tend to 1.115 at high levels of gain (> 10x). In order to validate the predictions made, measurements were taken using an 55 Fe source with Mn k-alpha X-ray energy of 5898 eV. These measurements allowed the hypothesis to be verified.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6086607
Pages (from-to)167-175
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Volume59
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2012

Fingerprint

Charge coupled devices
Photons
X rays
Electrons
Shot noise
Silicon
Amplification
Infrared radiation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Tutt, James Henry ; Holland, Andrew D. ; Hall, David J. ; Harriss, Richard D. ; Murray, Neil J. / The noise performance of electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices at X-ray energies. In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices. 2012 ; Vol. 59, No. 1. pp. 167-175.
@article{505fa85610b7480fb58822fc22481a22,
title = "The noise performance of electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices at X-ray energies",
abstract = "Electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices (EM-CCDs) are used in low-light-level (L3) applications for detecting optical, ultraviolet, and near-infrared photons (10-1100 nm). The on-chip gain process is able to increase the detectability of any signal collected by the device through the multiplication of the signal before the output node. Thus, the effective readout noise can be reduced to subelectron levels, allowing the detection of single photons. However, this gain process introduces an additional noise component due to the stochastic nature of the multiplication. In optical applications, this additional noise has been characterized. The broadening of the detected peak is described by the excess noise factor. This factor tends to a value of √2 at high gain (>100x). In X-ray applications, the situation is improved by the effect that Fano factor f has on the shot noise associated with X-ray photon detection ( f ≈ 0.12} at X-ray energies). In this paper, the effect of the detection of X-ray photons in silicon is assessed both analytically and through a Monte Carlo model of the gain amplification process. The excess noise on the signal is predicted (termed the modified Fano factor) for photon detection in an EM-CCD at X-ray energies. A hypothesis is made that the modified Fano factor should tend to 1.115 at high levels of gain (> 10x). In order to validate the predictions made, measurements were taken using an 55 Fe source with Mn k-alpha X-ray energy of 5898 eV. These measurements allowed the hypothesis to be verified.",
author = "Tutt, {James Henry} and Holland, {Andrew D.} and Hall, {David J.} and Harriss, {Richard D.} and Murray, {Neil J.}",
year = "2012",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1109/TED.2011.2172611",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "59",
pages = "167--175",
journal = "IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices",
issn = "0018-9383",
publisher = "Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.",
number = "1",

}

The noise performance of electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices at X-ray energies. / Tutt, James Henry; Holland, Andrew D.; Hall, David J.; Harriss, Richard D.; Murray, Neil J.

In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 59, No. 1, 6086607, 01.01.2012, p. 167-175.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The noise performance of electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices at X-ray energies

AU - Tutt, James Henry

AU - Holland, Andrew D.

AU - Hall, David J.

AU - Harriss, Richard D.

AU - Murray, Neil J.

PY - 2012/1/1

Y1 - 2012/1/1

N2 - Electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices (EM-CCDs) are used in low-light-level (L3) applications for detecting optical, ultraviolet, and near-infrared photons (10-1100 nm). The on-chip gain process is able to increase the detectability of any signal collected by the device through the multiplication of the signal before the output node. Thus, the effective readout noise can be reduced to subelectron levels, allowing the detection of single photons. However, this gain process introduces an additional noise component due to the stochastic nature of the multiplication. In optical applications, this additional noise has been characterized. The broadening of the detected peak is described by the excess noise factor. This factor tends to a value of √2 at high gain (>100x). In X-ray applications, the situation is improved by the effect that Fano factor f has on the shot noise associated with X-ray photon detection ( f ≈ 0.12} at X-ray energies). In this paper, the effect of the detection of X-ray photons in silicon is assessed both analytically and through a Monte Carlo model of the gain amplification process. The excess noise on the signal is predicted (termed the modified Fano factor) for photon detection in an EM-CCD at X-ray energies. A hypothesis is made that the modified Fano factor should tend to 1.115 at high levels of gain (> 10x). In order to validate the predictions made, measurements were taken using an 55 Fe source with Mn k-alpha X-ray energy of 5898 eV. These measurements allowed the hypothesis to be verified.

AB - Electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices (EM-CCDs) are used in low-light-level (L3) applications for detecting optical, ultraviolet, and near-infrared photons (10-1100 nm). The on-chip gain process is able to increase the detectability of any signal collected by the device through the multiplication of the signal before the output node. Thus, the effective readout noise can be reduced to subelectron levels, allowing the detection of single photons. However, this gain process introduces an additional noise component due to the stochastic nature of the multiplication. In optical applications, this additional noise has been characterized. The broadening of the detected peak is described by the excess noise factor. This factor tends to a value of √2 at high gain (>100x). In X-ray applications, the situation is improved by the effect that Fano factor f has on the shot noise associated with X-ray photon detection ( f ≈ 0.12} at X-ray energies). In this paper, the effect of the detection of X-ray photons in silicon is assessed both analytically and through a Monte Carlo model of the gain amplification process. The excess noise on the signal is predicted (termed the modified Fano factor) for photon detection in an EM-CCD at X-ray energies. A hypothesis is made that the modified Fano factor should tend to 1.115 at high levels of gain (> 10x). In order to validate the predictions made, measurements were taken using an 55 Fe source with Mn k-alpha X-ray energy of 5898 eV. These measurements allowed the hypothesis to be verified.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84855421362&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84855421362&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1109/TED.2011.2172611

DO - 10.1109/TED.2011.2172611

M3 - Article

VL - 59

SP - 167

EP - 175

JO - IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices

JF - IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices

SN - 0018-9383

IS - 1

M1 - 6086607

ER -