The gene cluster from Pantoea agglomerans responsible for biosynthesis of the dapdiamide antibiotics encodes an adenylation-thiolation didomain protein, DdaD, and an Fe(II)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase homologue, DdaC. Here we show that DdaD, a nonribosomal peptide synthetase module, activates and sequesters Nβ-fumaramoyl-l-2,3-diaminopropionate as a covalently tethered thioester for subsequent oxidative modification of the fumaramoyl group. DdaC catalyzes Fe(II)- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent epoxidation of the covalently bound Nβ-fumaramoyl-l-2,3- diaminopropionyl-S-DdaD species to generate Nβ-epoxysuccinamoyl- DAP (DAP = 2,3-diaminopropionate) in thioester linkage to DdaD. After hydrolytic release, Nβ-epoxysuccinamoyl-DAP can be ligated to l-valine by the ATP-dependent ligase DdaF to form the natural antibiotic N β-epoxysuccinamoyl-DAP-Val.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry