The Perceived Value of Direct and Indirect Influence Strategies: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

Janice M. Steil, Jennifer L. Hillman

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In this study, we assessed the generalizability of the Western preference for direct versus indirect influence strategies and its relation to participant sex, perceptions of participant power, and concerns for politeness among a sample of 138 American, 41 Japanese, and 44 Korean female and male college students. Regardless of cultural group or participant sex, direct strategies were reported as first choice strategies, whereas indirect strategies were cited as strategies of last resort. Participant power, not participant sex, was predictive of the students' reported strategy use. Although the American, Japanese, and Korean students were more similar than different on measures of perceived power and frequency of strategy use, concerns for politeness were reflected in the Japanese and Korean students' less confrontational strategy style.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)457-462
Number of pages6
JournalPsychology of Women Quarterly
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 1993


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Gender Studies
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Psychology(all)

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