Viruses have evolved numerous strategies to maximize the use of their limited genetic material, including proteolytic cleavage of polyproteins to yield products with different functions. The poliovirus polyprotein 3CD is involved in important protein-protein, protein-RNA and proteinlipid interactions in viral replication and infection. It is a precursor to the 3C protease and 3D RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, but has different protease specificity, is not an active polymerase, and participates in other interactions differently than its processed products. These functional differences are poorly explained by the known X-ray crystal structures. It has been proposed that functional differences might be due to differences in conformational dynamics between 3C, 3D and 3CD. To address this possibility, we conducted nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments, including multiple quantum relaxation dispersion, chemical exchange saturation transfer and methyl spin-spin relaxation, to probe conformational dynamics across multiple timescales. Indeed, these studies identified differences in conformational dynamics in functionally important regions, including enzyme active sites, and RNA and lipid binding sites. Expansion of the conformational ensemble available to 3CD may allow it to perform additional functions not observed in 3C and 3D alone despite having nearly identical lowest-energy structures.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Infectious Diseases