Purpose - This chapter makes sense of the volume and suggests avenues for future research. Design/methodology/approach - This chapter reflects upon some of the challenges facing biology and politics; it offers two case studies of areas calling for more research and discussion. Findings - Some evolutionary theorists criticize religion. In the process, they undermine the ability to reach out to religious people about the value of evolutionary theory. Two case studies - group selection and genetic bases of political behavior - are examined to illustrate ongoing issues that call for further attention.