To transfer the genes for yellow seed coat from both genomes A and C to B. napus (AACC), the hexaploid of Brassica (AABBCC) was synthesised from reciprocal interspecific crosses between yellow-seeded B. campestris (AA) and B. carinata (BBCC). The hexaploid with 27 pairs of chromosomes was red-seeded which showed that genic interaction existed in the trigenomic plants for the colour of the seed coat. Hundreds of hybrid seeds were obtained from crosses between the red-seeded hexaploid and partial yellow or brown-seeded varieties of B. napus as pollen donor. The majority of the hybrid plants (AABCC) were self fertile with brown seeds. It appeared that the chromosomes of the B genome were excluded during the meiosis of the pentaploid and a high proportion of the genetically balanced AC gametes could be produced. The fertility of the F2 population was increased and even reached normal levels for some plants. Seventy-three plants with the yellow-seeded character were isolated from 2590 open-pollinated F2 plants, most with increased fertility. After two successive self-pollinations, 18 lines produced yellow seeds and no brown seeds segregated from these populations. The morphology of the novel yellow-seeded plants was basically towards B. napus. Esterase isoenzyme electrophoresis showed that the plants contained some of the genetic background of B. campestris, B. carinata and B. napus. Cytological analysis has shown that at least some yellow-seeded lines have the B.napus AACC genome composition with 38 chromosomes and normal meiotic pairing.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Plant Science