The redshift and afterglow of the extremely energetic gamma-ray burst GRB 080916C

J. Greiner, C. Clemens, T. Krühler, A. Von Kienlin, A. Rau, R. Sari, Derek Brindley Fox, N. Kawai, P. Afonso, M. Ajello, E. Berger, S. B. Cenko, A. Cucchiara, R. Filgas, S. Klose, A. Küpcü Yoldaş, G. G. Lichti, S. Löw, S. McBreen, T. Nagayama & 5 others A. Rossi, S. Sato, G. Szokoly, A. Yoldaş, X. L. Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Context. The detection of GeV photons from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has important consequences for the interpretation and modelling of these most-energetic cosmological explosions. The full exploitation of the high-energy measurements relies, however, on accurate knowledge of the distance to the events.Aims. Here we report on the discovery of the afterglow and subsequent redshift determination of GRB 080916C, the first GRB detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope with high significance detection of photons at energies >0.1 GeV.Methods. Observations were done with the 7-channel "Gamma-Ray Optical and Near-infrared Detector" (GROND) at the 2.2m MPI/ESO telescope, the SIRIUS instrument at the Nagoya-SAAO 1.4 m telescope in South Africa, and the GMOS instrument at Gemini-S.Results. The afterglow photometric redshift of z =4.35 ±0.15, based on simultaneous 7-filter observations with GROND, places GRB 080916C among the top 5% most distant GRBs and makes it the most energetic GRB known to date. The detection of GeV photons from such a distant event is unexpected because of the predicted opacity due to interaction with the extragalactic background light. The observed gamma-ray variability in the prompt emission, together with the redshift, suggests a lower limit for the Lorentz factor of the ultra-relativistic ejecta of Γ >1090. This value rivals any previous measurements of Γ in GRBs and strengthens the extreme nature of GRB 080916C.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)89-94
Number of pages6
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volume498
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2009

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afterglows
gamma ray bursts
energetics
near infrared
ejecta
energy
explosion
infrared detectors
gamma rays
filter
photons
telescopes
Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope
modeling
Republic of South Africa
detection
exploitation
European Southern Observatory
opacity
explosions

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Greiner, J., Clemens, C., Krühler, T., Von Kienlin, A., Rau, A., Sari, R., ... Zhang, X. L. (2009). The redshift and afterglow of the extremely energetic gamma-ray burst GRB 080916C. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 498(1), 89-94. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/200811571
Greiner, J. ; Clemens, C. ; Krühler, T. ; Von Kienlin, A. ; Rau, A. ; Sari, R. ; Fox, Derek Brindley ; Kawai, N. ; Afonso, P. ; Ajello, M. ; Berger, E. ; Cenko, S. B. ; Cucchiara, A. ; Filgas, R. ; Klose, S. ; Küpcü Yoldaş, A. ; Lichti, G. G. ; Löw, S. ; McBreen, S. ; Nagayama, T. ; Rossi, A. ; Sato, S. ; Szokoly, G. ; Yoldaş, A. ; Zhang, X. L. / The redshift and afterglow of the extremely energetic gamma-ray burst GRB 080916C. In: Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2009 ; Vol. 498, No. 1. pp. 89-94.
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abstract = "Context. The detection of GeV photons from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has important consequences for the interpretation and modelling of these most-energetic cosmological explosions. The full exploitation of the high-energy measurements relies, however, on accurate knowledge of the distance to the events.Aims. Here we report on the discovery of the afterglow and subsequent redshift determination of GRB 080916C, the first GRB detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope with high significance detection of photons at energies >0.1 GeV.Methods. Observations were done with the 7-channel {"}Gamma-Ray Optical and Near-infrared Detector{"} (GROND) at the 2.2m MPI/ESO telescope, the SIRIUS instrument at the Nagoya-SAAO 1.4 m telescope in South Africa, and the GMOS instrument at Gemini-S.Results. The afterglow photometric redshift of z =4.35 ±0.15, based on simultaneous 7-filter observations with GROND, places GRB 080916C among the top 5{\%} most distant GRBs and makes it the most energetic GRB known to date. The detection of GeV photons from such a distant event is unexpected because of the predicted opacity due to interaction with the extragalactic background light. The observed gamma-ray variability in the prompt emission, together with the redshift, suggests a lower limit for the Lorentz factor of the ultra-relativistic ejecta of Γ >1090. This value rivals any previous measurements of Γ in GRBs and strengthens the extreme nature of GRB 080916C.",
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Greiner, J, Clemens, C, Krühler, T, Von Kienlin, A, Rau, A, Sari, R, Fox, DB, Kawai, N, Afonso, P, Ajello, M, Berger, E, Cenko, SB, Cucchiara, A, Filgas, R, Klose, S, Küpcü Yoldaş, A, Lichti, GG, Löw, S, McBreen, S, Nagayama, T, Rossi, A, Sato, S, Szokoly, G, Yoldaş, A & Zhang, XL 2009, 'The redshift and afterglow of the extremely energetic gamma-ray burst GRB 080916C', Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 498, no. 1, pp. 89-94. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/200811571

The redshift and afterglow of the extremely energetic gamma-ray burst GRB 080916C. / Greiner, J.; Clemens, C.; Krühler, T.; Von Kienlin, A.; Rau, A.; Sari, R.; Fox, Derek Brindley; Kawai, N.; Afonso, P.; Ajello, M.; Berger, E.; Cenko, S. B.; Cucchiara, A.; Filgas, R.; Klose, S.; Küpcü Yoldaş, A.; Lichti, G. G.; Löw, S.; McBreen, S.; Nagayama, T.; Rossi, A.; Sato, S.; Szokoly, G.; Yoldaş, A.; Zhang, X. L.

In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 498, No. 1, 01.04.2009, p. 89-94.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - The redshift and afterglow of the extremely energetic gamma-ray burst GRB 080916C

AU - Greiner, J.

AU - Clemens, C.

AU - Krühler, T.

AU - Von Kienlin, A.

AU - Rau, A.

AU - Sari, R.

AU - Fox, Derek Brindley

AU - Kawai, N.

AU - Afonso, P.

AU - Ajello, M.

AU - Berger, E.

AU - Cenko, S. B.

AU - Cucchiara, A.

AU - Filgas, R.

AU - Klose, S.

AU - Küpcü Yoldaş, A.

AU - Lichti, G. G.

AU - Löw, S.

AU - McBreen, S.

AU - Nagayama, T.

AU - Rossi, A.

AU - Sato, S.

AU - Szokoly, G.

AU - Yoldaş, A.

AU - Zhang, X. L.

PY - 2009/4/1

Y1 - 2009/4/1

N2 - Context. The detection of GeV photons from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has important consequences for the interpretation and modelling of these most-energetic cosmological explosions. The full exploitation of the high-energy measurements relies, however, on accurate knowledge of the distance to the events.Aims. Here we report on the discovery of the afterglow and subsequent redshift determination of GRB 080916C, the first GRB detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope with high significance detection of photons at energies >0.1 GeV.Methods. Observations were done with the 7-channel "Gamma-Ray Optical and Near-infrared Detector" (GROND) at the 2.2m MPI/ESO telescope, the SIRIUS instrument at the Nagoya-SAAO 1.4 m telescope in South Africa, and the GMOS instrument at Gemini-S.Results. The afterglow photometric redshift of z =4.35 ±0.15, based on simultaneous 7-filter observations with GROND, places GRB 080916C among the top 5% most distant GRBs and makes it the most energetic GRB known to date. The detection of GeV photons from such a distant event is unexpected because of the predicted opacity due to interaction with the extragalactic background light. The observed gamma-ray variability in the prompt emission, together with the redshift, suggests a lower limit for the Lorentz factor of the ultra-relativistic ejecta of Γ >1090. This value rivals any previous measurements of Γ in GRBs and strengthens the extreme nature of GRB 080916C.

AB - Context. The detection of GeV photons from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has important consequences for the interpretation and modelling of these most-energetic cosmological explosions. The full exploitation of the high-energy measurements relies, however, on accurate knowledge of the distance to the events.Aims. Here we report on the discovery of the afterglow and subsequent redshift determination of GRB 080916C, the first GRB detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope with high significance detection of photons at energies >0.1 GeV.Methods. Observations were done with the 7-channel "Gamma-Ray Optical and Near-infrared Detector" (GROND) at the 2.2m MPI/ESO telescope, the SIRIUS instrument at the Nagoya-SAAO 1.4 m telescope in South Africa, and the GMOS instrument at Gemini-S.Results. The afterglow photometric redshift of z =4.35 ±0.15, based on simultaneous 7-filter observations with GROND, places GRB 080916C among the top 5% most distant GRBs and makes it the most energetic GRB known to date. The detection of GeV photons from such a distant event is unexpected because of the predicted opacity due to interaction with the extragalactic background light. The observed gamma-ray variability in the prompt emission, together with the redshift, suggests a lower limit for the Lorentz factor of the ultra-relativistic ejecta of Γ >1090. This value rivals any previous measurements of Γ in GRBs and strengthens the extreme nature of GRB 080916C.

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