The relationship between calcium, phosphorus, and sodium intake, race, and blood pressure in children with renal insufficiency: A report of the growth failure in children with renal diseases (GFRD) study

H. Trachtman, J. C.M. Chan, R. Boyle, D. Farina, H. J. Baluarte, Vernon Chinchilli, J. G. Dresner, L. G. Feld

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Nutritional data compiled during the Growth Failure in Children with Renal Diseases Clinical Trial were analyzed to determine the relationship between the dietary intake of divalent minerals and sodium, nutritional status, and serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations and blood pressure in black versus white children. One hundred eighteen patients are included in this report; 25 were black (21%) and 93 were white (79%). Although more of the blacks were male, the age distribution, midarm circumference, midarm muscle circumference, blood pressure, and serum calcium, phosphorus, and PTH concentrations were comparable in the two groups. Phosphorus intake was within the recommended daily allowance in both groups; in contrast, calcium intake was inadequate in all patients: 81% of the recommended daily allowance in whites, and 74% in blacks. Sixteen children were noted to be hypertensive during the observation period; six patients were receiving a variety of antihypertensive medications, including diuretics in two children. Linear regression analysis revealed that systolic and diastolic blood pressures were directly related to calcium and phosphorus intake in black patients. In white children, only dietary phosphorus intake and diastolic blood pressure were directly related. There was no relationship between sodium intake or GFR and blood pressure in the white or black children. PTH levels were directly correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in all children. The correlations between PTH and blood pressure were stronger in white versus black patients. There was no correlation between blood pressure and serum calcium concentration in the white patients; however, multivariate analysis indicated that there was an inverse relationship between systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and the serum calcium concentration in the black patients. These findings indicate that chronic renal failure may alter the interrelationships between divalent mineral metabolism and blood pressure that prevail in normal individuals and that these changes may affect black and white children differently.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)126-131
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the American Society of Nephrology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 1995


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nephrology

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