Cryptorchidism is the most common genitourinary disorder of childhood, resulting in 27,000 surgical cases each year in the United States. Of the 3% of full-term infants affected, most will have testes that will descend normally within a few months. The remaining 1%, who have a cryptorchid condition that persists, should consider medical or surgical intervention. In addition, although the effect of cryptorchidism on testicular development and fertility has been studied extensively, the only fact of certainty is that untreated men with bilateral abdominal testes will be infertile. The remaining scenarios (unilateral, inguinal, gliding, and medically or surgically treated conditions) offer unpredictable levels of fertility. Fortunately, based on recent research, the correlation between testis maldescent and infertility may not be as prevalent as previously reported.
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