The Role of General and Daily Control Beliefs for Affective Stressor-Reactivity Across Adulthood and Old Age

Rachel Koffer, Johanna Drewelies, David M. Almeida, David E. Conroy, Aaron L. Pincus, Denis Gerstorf, Nilam Ram

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: General and situational control beliefs have been examined separately as buffers of the effects of daily stressors on affective well-being. However, general (trait) control beliefs reflect perceived ability to adapt, change, and influence overall life circumstances, whereas situational (daily) control beliefs reflect perceived ability to manage current circumstances and achieve desired outcomes. Method: Using 9 weeks of daily reports from 150 adults aged 18-89 years, we examined the extent that general and daily control beliefs buffer the between- and within-person associations involving stressors and negative and positive affect (i.e., daily stress processes) and whether/how the extent of buffering differs with age. Results: Aligning with prior findings, both greater average stressor exposure and experiencing a daily stressor compromised daily affective well-being and both higher general and daily control beliefs facilitated daily affective well-being. Specific to the motivating hypotheses, both general and daily control beliefs buffered daily stressor-reactivity. Age was associated with individuals' daily stressor-buffering, such that stressor-reactivity was more effectively damped at older ages. Associations between general control beliefs and daily stress processes were age invariant. Discussion: Mixed evidence of age differences across general and daily control beliefs highlights how within-person processes may differentially contribute to well-being as individuals accommodate age-related strengths and vulnerabilities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)242-253
Number of pages12
JournalJournals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Volume74
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 10 2019

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old age
adulthood
well-being
Aptitude
Buffers
human being
age difference
ability
vulnerability
evidence

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Health(social science)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies

Cite this

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title = "The Role of General and Daily Control Beliefs for Affective Stressor-Reactivity Across Adulthood and Old Age",
abstract = "Background: General and situational control beliefs have been examined separately as buffers of the effects of daily stressors on affective well-being. However, general (trait) control beliefs reflect perceived ability to adapt, change, and influence overall life circumstances, whereas situational (daily) control beliefs reflect perceived ability to manage current circumstances and achieve desired outcomes. Method: Using 9 weeks of daily reports from 150 adults aged 18-89 years, we examined the extent that general and daily control beliefs buffer the between- and within-person associations involving stressors and negative and positive affect (i.e., daily stress processes) and whether/how the extent of buffering differs with age. Results: Aligning with prior findings, both greater average stressor exposure and experiencing a daily stressor compromised daily affective well-being and both higher general and daily control beliefs facilitated daily affective well-being. Specific to the motivating hypotheses, both general and daily control beliefs buffered daily stressor-reactivity. Age was associated with individuals' daily stressor-buffering, such that stressor-reactivity was more effectively damped at older ages. Associations between general control beliefs and daily stress processes were age invariant. Discussion: Mixed evidence of age differences across general and daily control beliefs highlights how within-person processes may differentially contribute to well-being as individuals accommodate age-related strengths and vulnerabilities.",
author = "Rachel Koffer and Johanna Drewelies and Almeida, {David M.} and Conroy, {David E.} and Pincus, {Aaron L.} and Denis Gerstorf and Nilam Ram",
year = "2019",
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T1 - The Role of General and Daily Control Beliefs for Affective Stressor-Reactivity Across Adulthood and Old Age

AU - Koffer, Rachel

AU - Drewelies, Johanna

AU - Almeida, David M.

AU - Conroy, David E.

AU - Pincus, Aaron L.

AU - Gerstorf, Denis

AU - Ram, Nilam

PY - 2019/1/10

Y1 - 2019/1/10

N2 - Background: General and situational control beliefs have been examined separately as buffers of the effects of daily stressors on affective well-being. However, general (trait) control beliefs reflect perceived ability to adapt, change, and influence overall life circumstances, whereas situational (daily) control beliefs reflect perceived ability to manage current circumstances and achieve desired outcomes. Method: Using 9 weeks of daily reports from 150 adults aged 18-89 years, we examined the extent that general and daily control beliefs buffer the between- and within-person associations involving stressors and negative and positive affect (i.e., daily stress processes) and whether/how the extent of buffering differs with age. Results: Aligning with prior findings, both greater average stressor exposure and experiencing a daily stressor compromised daily affective well-being and both higher general and daily control beliefs facilitated daily affective well-being. Specific to the motivating hypotheses, both general and daily control beliefs buffered daily stressor-reactivity. Age was associated with individuals' daily stressor-buffering, such that stressor-reactivity was more effectively damped at older ages. Associations between general control beliefs and daily stress processes were age invariant. Discussion: Mixed evidence of age differences across general and daily control beliefs highlights how within-person processes may differentially contribute to well-being as individuals accommodate age-related strengths and vulnerabilities.

AB - Background: General and situational control beliefs have been examined separately as buffers of the effects of daily stressors on affective well-being. However, general (trait) control beliefs reflect perceived ability to adapt, change, and influence overall life circumstances, whereas situational (daily) control beliefs reflect perceived ability to manage current circumstances and achieve desired outcomes. Method: Using 9 weeks of daily reports from 150 adults aged 18-89 years, we examined the extent that general and daily control beliefs buffer the between- and within-person associations involving stressors and negative and positive affect (i.e., daily stress processes) and whether/how the extent of buffering differs with age. Results: Aligning with prior findings, both greater average stressor exposure and experiencing a daily stressor compromised daily affective well-being and both higher general and daily control beliefs facilitated daily affective well-being. Specific to the motivating hypotheses, both general and daily control beliefs buffered daily stressor-reactivity. Age was associated with individuals' daily stressor-buffering, such that stressor-reactivity was more effectively damped at older ages. Associations between general control beliefs and daily stress processes were age invariant. Discussion: Mixed evidence of age differences across general and daily control beliefs highlights how within-person processes may differentially contribute to well-being as individuals accommodate age-related strengths and vulnerabilities.

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