Past research on fish orientation and migration has tended to focus on genetically fixed patterns of behaviour. However, in most aquatic environments. the physical landscape as well as biologically important locations will be subject to varying degrees of change, favouring an ability to learn. Here, we review the evidence from field and laboratory-based experiments that fish can and do use learning and memory to orientate within their natural environments. relying on information from a diverse array of different sources. Comparisons of different species and populations suggest that fish may be predisposed to learn specific associations at specific times or places. appropriate for the particular navigational problems that they are likely to encounter.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Aquatic Science
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law