Preclinical and epidemiological data suggest that omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FA) protect against breast cancer, although controversy still exists in the literature. In view of the heterogeneity of human breast cancer, we believe that n-3FA should be a component of a multi-targeted approach for effective chemoprevention. Preclinical data from our laboratories indicate that n-3FA potentiates the chemopreventive effect of the antiestrogen Tamoxifen based on the complementarity of their mechanisms of antitumor action suggested by our signaling, genomic, and proteomic studies. Because of their anti-estrogenic and anti-infl ammatory properties, n-3FA may be preferentially effective in preventing obesity-related breast cancer. In view of the hyperestrogenic and pro-infl ammatory milieu present systematically and in the mammary glands of obese women, n-3FA may cooperate with weight loss induced by dietary energy restriction in reducing breast cancer risk in these subjects. Evidence-based combinatorial intervention trials targeting appropriately selected populations of women at risk are needed to establish the role of n-3FA in breast cancer prevention.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)