The relationship between polycythemia vera (PV) and primary hyperparathyroidism is not well understood. Remission or improvement of PV following parathyroidectomy in the setting of primary hyperparathyroidism has previously been described; however, long-term outcomes are not well characterized. We describe a patient with JAK2 mutation negative PV and primary hyperparathyroidism, with a dramatic, but ultimately transient, improvement in hemoglobin following resection of a parathyroid adenoma. While screening for hyperparathyroidism may be useful in the setting of PV, indications for parathyroidectomy should be driven by symptomatology or established criteria, not the desire to affect the clinical course of PV.
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