In this chapter, East Asian country and territory reports are examined for productive intersections in understanding primary science in the context of contemporary reform in science education. The authors of these reports provide thoughtful considerations, insights, and advancements in curriculum, instruction, and assessment from which we all can learn. Three problems of practice shared across contributing countries include (a) student performance on international comparison tests, (b) the lack of hands-on investigation in primary science, and (c) primary teacher preparation in science. Discussion of reports is set against this backdrop and focuses on the challenges and promise of primary teacher education across the professional continuum (preservice to experience teachers), insights from research and practice focused on improving opportunities for teacher learning, and exemplar approaches in teacher education from contributing countries that are already underway. Moving forward, it is tempting to embrace new standards as a panacea for improving science education, especially at the primary level. In order to learn from past reforms, there is a vital need to consider the underlying research and conceptual framework, which calls for targeted shifts in the ways that science is taught and learned. Additionally, addressing complex systems of science education and creating more coherence among curriculum, instruction, assessment, and policy is needed.