The sliding characteristics of sandstone on quartz fault-gouge

James T. Engelder, John M. Logan, John Handin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

86 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Three types of triaxial compression experiments are used to characterize the frictional processes during sliding on quartz gouge. They are: 1) pre-cut Tennessee Sandstone sliding on an artificial layer of quartz gouge; 2) fractured Coconino Sandstone sliding along experimentally produced shear fractures; and 3) a fine-grained quartz aggregate deformed in compression. The specimens were deformed to 2.0 kb confining pressure at room temperature and displacement rates from 10-2 to 10-5 cm/sec dry and with water. There is a transition in sliding mode from stick-slip at confining pressures<0.7 kb to stable sliding at>0.7 kb. This transition is accompanied by a change from sliding at the sandstone-gouge contact (stick-slip) to riding on a layer of cataclastically flowing gouge (stable sliding). Quartz gouge between the pre-cut surfaces of Tennessee Sandstone lowers both the kinetic coefficient of friction and the magnitude of the stick-slip stress drops compared to those for a pre-cut surface alone. Stick-slip stress drops are preceded by stable sliding at displacements of 10-5 cm/sec. For a decrease in displacement rate between 10-3 and 10-5 cm/sec, stress-drops magnitudes increase from 25 to 50 bars. Tests on saturated quartz gouge show sufficient permeability to permit fluidpressure equilibrium within compacted gouge in 10 to 30 seconds; thus the principle of effective stress should hold for the fault zone with quartz gouge. Our results suggest that at effective confining pressures of less than 2.0 kb, if a fault zone contains quartz gouge, laboratory-type stick-slip can be an earthquake-source mechanism only if a planar sliding-surface develops, and then only when the effective confining pressure is less than 0.7 kb.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)69-86
Number of pages18
JournalPure and Applied Geophysics PAGEOPH
Volume113
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 1975

Fingerprint

fault gouge
Quartz
sandstones
Sandstone
sliding
Stick-slip
stick-slip
quartz
sandstone
slip
confining
confining pressure
fault zone
compression
effective stress
Earthquakes
coefficient of friction
Compaction
permeability
Friction

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geophysics
  • Geochemistry and Petrology

Cite this

Engelder, James T. ; Logan, John M. ; Handin, John. / The sliding characteristics of sandstone on quartz fault-gouge. In: Pure and Applied Geophysics PAGEOPH. 1975 ; Vol. 113, No. 1. pp. 69-86.
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The sliding characteristics of sandstone on quartz fault-gouge. / Engelder, James T.; Logan, John M.; Handin, John.

In: Pure and Applied Geophysics PAGEOPH, Vol. 113, No. 1, 01.12.1975, p. 69-86.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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