Objectives: We aimed to describe and report the initial validity of a newly developed structured interview for sleep disorders (Diagnostic Interview for Sleep Patterns and Disorders [DISP]) administered by trained lay interviewers. Methods: A total of 225 patients with various sleep disorders were recruited from two nationally recognized sleep centers in the United States. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders, second edition (ICSD-2) criteria, were used to classify sleep disorders (e.g., delayed sleep phase disorder, hypersomnia, narcolepsy with cataplexy [NC], restless legs syndrome [RLS], periodic limb movement disorder [PLMD], insomnia, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder [RBD], and obstructive sleep apnea [OSA]). Interview diagnoses were compared with final diagnoses by sleep specialists (reference diagnosis based on clinical history, examination, and polysomnography [PSG] when indicated). Results: DISP diagnoses had fair to substantial concordance with clinician diagnoses for various sleep disorders, with area under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUC) ranging from 0.65 to 0.84. Participants classified by the clinician as having a sleep disorder were moderately well-detected (sensitivity ranging from 0.50 for RBD disorder to 0.87 for insomnia). Substantial specificity (>0.8) also was seen for five of the eight sleep disorders (i.e., delayed sleep phase, hypersomnia, NC, PLMD, and RBD). Interviews were more likely than clinicians to detect disorders secondary to the primary sleep problem. Conclusions: The DISP provides an important tool for the detection of a wide range of sleep disorders in clinical settings and is particularly valuable in the detection of secondary disorders that were not the primary referral diagnosis.
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