The surface-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide, water, and sensible heat across a dryland wheat-fallow rotation

Elizabeth S.K. Vick, Paul C. Stoy, Angela C.I. Tang, Tobias Gerken

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Summer fallow – the practice of keeping a field out of production during the growing season – is a common practice in dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping systems to conserve soil water resources. Fallow also depletes soil carbon stocks and thereby soil quality. The area of summer fallow has decreased by tens of millions of hectares since the 1970s in the northern North American Great Plains as producers have recognized that avoiding fallow usually confers both economic and soil conservation benefits. Observed summertime cooling across parts of this region has coincided with fallow reduction, suggesting that the role of fallow in atmospheric processes needs to be ascertained. We measured carbon dioxide, latent heat, and sensible heat flux across a winter wheat – spring wheat – fallow sequence in Montana, USA to determine the effects of dryland crop management on ecosystem carbon resources and energy partitioning at the surface-atmosphere interface. Winter wheat and spring wheat fields were carbon sinks (Fc = −203 ± 52 g [Formula presented]2 m−2 and −107 ± 29 g [Formula presented]2 m−2), respectively, during the April to September study period, but the fallow field was a carbon source of 135 ± 73 g [Formula presented]2 m−2. Evapotranspiration in the wheat crops was over 100 mm greater than the 275 ± 39 mm observed in the fallow field during the study period. Modeled maximum daily atmospheric boundary layer height was on average 210 m higher and up to 900 m higher in fallow compared to the spring wheat field with more crossings of the modeled atmospheric boundary layer and lifted condensation level, suggesting that regional studies of the effects of fallow on near-surface temperature and moisture are necessary to understand the effects of fallow reduction on regional climate dynamics. Results demonstrate that fallow has a detrimental impact to soil carbon resources yet is less water intensive, with consequences for regional climate via its impacts on atmospheric boundary layer development and global climate via its carbon metabolism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)129-140
Number of pages12
JournalAgriculture, Ecosystems and Environment
Volume232
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 16 2016

Fingerprint

fallow
arid lands
carbon dioxide
wheat
heat
atmosphere
water
spring wheat
carbon
boundary layer
climate
soil carbon
carbon sinks
regional climate
winter wheat
crop
carbon sink
summer
winter
soil conservation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ecology
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Agronomy and Crop Science

Cite this

@article{d5ce422fc9b248799d0b3d1d73d42996,
title = "The surface-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide, water, and sensible heat across a dryland wheat-fallow rotation",
abstract = "Summer fallow – the practice of keeping a field out of production during the growing season – is a common practice in dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping systems to conserve soil water resources. Fallow also depletes soil carbon stocks and thereby soil quality. The area of summer fallow has decreased by tens of millions of hectares since the 1970s in the northern North American Great Plains as producers have recognized that avoiding fallow usually confers both economic and soil conservation benefits. Observed summertime cooling across parts of this region has coincided with fallow reduction, suggesting that the role of fallow in atmospheric processes needs to be ascertained. We measured carbon dioxide, latent heat, and sensible heat flux across a winter wheat – spring wheat – fallow sequence in Montana, USA to determine the effects of dryland crop management on ecosystem carbon resources and energy partitioning at the surface-atmosphere interface. Winter wheat and spring wheat fields were carbon sinks (Fc = −203 ± 52 g [Formula presented]2 m−2 and −107 ± 29 g [Formula presented]2 m−2), respectively, during the April to September study period, but the fallow field was a carbon source of 135 ± 73 g [Formula presented]2 m−2. Evapotranspiration in the wheat crops was over 100 mm greater than the 275 ± 39 mm observed in the fallow field during the study period. Modeled maximum daily atmospheric boundary layer height was on average 210 m higher and up to 900 m higher in fallow compared to the spring wheat field with more crossings of the modeled atmospheric boundary layer and lifted condensation level, suggesting that regional studies of the effects of fallow on near-surface temperature and moisture are necessary to understand the effects of fallow reduction on regional climate dynamics. Results demonstrate that fallow has a detrimental impact to soil carbon resources yet is less water intensive, with consequences for regional climate via its impacts on atmospheric boundary layer development and global climate via its carbon metabolism.",
author = "Vick, {Elizabeth S.K.} and Stoy, {Paul C.} and Tang, {Angela C.I.} and Tobias Gerken",
year = "2016",
month = "9",
day = "16",
doi = "10.1016/j.agee.2016.07.018",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "232",
pages = "129--140",
journal = "Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment",
issn = "0167-8809",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

The surface-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide, water, and sensible heat across a dryland wheat-fallow rotation. / Vick, Elizabeth S.K.; Stoy, Paul C.; Tang, Angela C.I.; Gerken, Tobias.

In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, Vol. 232, 16.09.2016, p. 129-140.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The surface-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide, water, and sensible heat across a dryland wheat-fallow rotation

AU - Vick, Elizabeth S.K.

AU - Stoy, Paul C.

AU - Tang, Angela C.I.

AU - Gerken, Tobias

PY - 2016/9/16

Y1 - 2016/9/16

N2 - Summer fallow – the practice of keeping a field out of production during the growing season – is a common practice in dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping systems to conserve soil water resources. Fallow also depletes soil carbon stocks and thereby soil quality. The area of summer fallow has decreased by tens of millions of hectares since the 1970s in the northern North American Great Plains as producers have recognized that avoiding fallow usually confers both economic and soil conservation benefits. Observed summertime cooling across parts of this region has coincided with fallow reduction, suggesting that the role of fallow in atmospheric processes needs to be ascertained. We measured carbon dioxide, latent heat, and sensible heat flux across a winter wheat – spring wheat – fallow sequence in Montana, USA to determine the effects of dryland crop management on ecosystem carbon resources and energy partitioning at the surface-atmosphere interface. Winter wheat and spring wheat fields were carbon sinks (Fc = −203 ± 52 g [Formula presented]2 m−2 and −107 ± 29 g [Formula presented]2 m−2), respectively, during the April to September study period, but the fallow field was a carbon source of 135 ± 73 g [Formula presented]2 m−2. Evapotranspiration in the wheat crops was over 100 mm greater than the 275 ± 39 mm observed in the fallow field during the study period. Modeled maximum daily atmospheric boundary layer height was on average 210 m higher and up to 900 m higher in fallow compared to the spring wheat field with more crossings of the modeled atmospheric boundary layer and lifted condensation level, suggesting that regional studies of the effects of fallow on near-surface temperature and moisture are necessary to understand the effects of fallow reduction on regional climate dynamics. Results demonstrate that fallow has a detrimental impact to soil carbon resources yet is less water intensive, with consequences for regional climate via its impacts on atmospheric boundary layer development and global climate via its carbon metabolism.

AB - Summer fallow – the practice of keeping a field out of production during the growing season – is a common practice in dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping systems to conserve soil water resources. Fallow also depletes soil carbon stocks and thereby soil quality. The area of summer fallow has decreased by tens of millions of hectares since the 1970s in the northern North American Great Plains as producers have recognized that avoiding fallow usually confers both economic and soil conservation benefits. Observed summertime cooling across parts of this region has coincided with fallow reduction, suggesting that the role of fallow in atmospheric processes needs to be ascertained. We measured carbon dioxide, latent heat, and sensible heat flux across a winter wheat – spring wheat – fallow sequence in Montana, USA to determine the effects of dryland crop management on ecosystem carbon resources and energy partitioning at the surface-atmosphere interface. Winter wheat and spring wheat fields were carbon sinks (Fc = −203 ± 52 g [Formula presented]2 m−2 and −107 ± 29 g [Formula presented]2 m−2), respectively, during the April to September study period, but the fallow field was a carbon source of 135 ± 73 g [Formula presented]2 m−2. Evapotranspiration in the wheat crops was over 100 mm greater than the 275 ± 39 mm observed in the fallow field during the study period. Modeled maximum daily atmospheric boundary layer height was on average 210 m higher and up to 900 m higher in fallow compared to the spring wheat field with more crossings of the modeled atmospheric boundary layer and lifted condensation level, suggesting that regional studies of the effects of fallow on near-surface temperature and moisture are necessary to understand the effects of fallow reduction on regional climate dynamics. Results demonstrate that fallow has a detrimental impact to soil carbon resources yet is less water intensive, with consequences for regional climate via its impacts on atmospheric boundary layer development and global climate via its carbon metabolism.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84981294554&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84981294554&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.agee.2016.07.018

DO - 10.1016/j.agee.2016.07.018

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84981294554

VL - 232

SP - 129

EP - 140

JO - Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment

JF - Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment

SN - 0167-8809

ER -