The Toll-Like Receptor 3 Agonist Poly(I:C) Induces Rapid and Lasting Changes in Gene Expression Related to Glutamatergic Function and Increases Ethanol Self-Administration in Rats

Patrick Arthur Randall, Ryan P. Vetreno, Viren H. Makhijani, Fulton T. Crews, Joyce Besheer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Growing evidence suggests that neuroimmune signaling via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) alters brain circuitry related to alcohol use disorders. Both ethanol (EtOH) exposure and the TLR3 agonist, poly(I:C), increase brain TLR3 expression in neurons and glia. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that cortical TLR3 expression is correlated with lifetime EtOH intake in humans. Methods: The current experiments investigated the consequences of poly(I:C) treatment on gene expression in 2 brain regions contributing to alcohol reinforcement, the insular cortex (IC) and nucleus accumbens (Acb) and on operant EtOH self-administration, in Long Evans rats. Results: TLR3 activation increased mRNA levels of neuroimmune genes (TLR3, COX2), glutamatergic genes (mGluR2, mGluR3, GLT1), and the trophic factor BDNF in Acb and IC. Furthermore, increases in each of these genes were correlated with increases in TLR3 mRNA, suggesting that TLR3 induction of these genes may impact excitatory transmission in IC and Acb. TLR3 activation also increased EtOH self-administration 18 days postinjection and enhanced the effects of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 to reduce EtOH self-administration following poly(I:C). Conclusions: Together, these findings suggest lasting consequences of TLR3 activation on gene expression including increases in Group II mGluRs in the Acb. Furthermore, we show an important role for TLR3 signaling in EtOH intake, and a functional involvement of Group II mGluRs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)48-60
Number of pages13
JournalAlcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
Volume43
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Toll-Like Receptor 3
Poly I-C
Self Administration
Gene expression
Rats
Ethanol
Genes
Cerebral Cortex
Gene Expression
Brain
Chemical activation
LY 379268
Alcohols
Long Evans Rats
Messenger RNA
Toll-Like Receptors
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
Nucleus Accumbens
Neuroglia
Neurons

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Toxicology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

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title = "The Toll-Like Receptor 3 Agonist Poly(I:C) Induces Rapid and Lasting Changes in Gene Expression Related to Glutamatergic Function and Increases Ethanol Self-Administration in Rats",
abstract = "Background: Growing evidence suggests that neuroimmune signaling via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) alters brain circuitry related to alcohol use disorders. Both ethanol (EtOH) exposure and the TLR3 agonist, poly(I:C), increase brain TLR3 expression in neurons and glia. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that cortical TLR3 expression is correlated with lifetime EtOH intake in humans. Methods: The current experiments investigated the consequences of poly(I:C) treatment on gene expression in 2 brain regions contributing to alcohol reinforcement, the insular cortex (IC) and nucleus accumbens (Acb) and on operant EtOH self-administration, in Long Evans rats. Results: TLR3 activation increased mRNA levels of neuroimmune genes (TLR3, COX2), glutamatergic genes (mGluR2, mGluR3, GLT1), and the trophic factor BDNF in Acb and IC. Furthermore, increases in each of these genes were correlated with increases in TLR3 mRNA, suggesting that TLR3 induction of these genes may impact excitatory transmission in IC and Acb. TLR3 activation also increased EtOH self-administration 18 days postinjection and enhanced the effects of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 to reduce EtOH self-administration following poly(I:C). Conclusions: Together, these findings suggest lasting consequences of TLR3 activation on gene expression including increases in Group II mGluRs in the Acb. Furthermore, we show an important role for TLR3 signaling in EtOH intake, and a functional involvement of Group II mGluRs.",
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The Toll-Like Receptor 3 Agonist Poly(I:C) Induces Rapid and Lasting Changes in Gene Expression Related to Glutamatergic Function and Increases Ethanol Self-Administration in Rats. / Randall, Patrick Arthur; Vetreno, Ryan P.; Makhijani, Viren H.; Crews, Fulton T.; Besheer, Joyce.

In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, Vol. 43, No. 1, 01.01.2019, p. 48-60.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - The Toll-Like Receptor 3 Agonist Poly(I:C) Induces Rapid and Lasting Changes in Gene Expression Related to Glutamatergic Function and Increases Ethanol Self-Administration in Rats

AU - Randall, Patrick Arthur

AU - Vetreno, Ryan P.

AU - Makhijani, Viren H.

AU - Crews, Fulton T.

AU - Besheer, Joyce

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N2 - Background: Growing evidence suggests that neuroimmune signaling via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) alters brain circuitry related to alcohol use disorders. Both ethanol (EtOH) exposure and the TLR3 agonist, poly(I:C), increase brain TLR3 expression in neurons and glia. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that cortical TLR3 expression is correlated with lifetime EtOH intake in humans. Methods: The current experiments investigated the consequences of poly(I:C) treatment on gene expression in 2 brain regions contributing to alcohol reinforcement, the insular cortex (IC) and nucleus accumbens (Acb) and on operant EtOH self-administration, in Long Evans rats. Results: TLR3 activation increased mRNA levels of neuroimmune genes (TLR3, COX2), glutamatergic genes (mGluR2, mGluR3, GLT1), and the trophic factor BDNF in Acb and IC. Furthermore, increases in each of these genes were correlated with increases in TLR3 mRNA, suggesting that TLR3 induction of these genes may impact excitatory transmission in IC and Acb. TLR3 activation also increased EtOH self-administration 18 days postinjection and enhanced the effects of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 to reduce EtOH self-administration following poly(I:C). Conclusions: Together, these findings suggest lasting consequences of TLR3 activation on gene expression including increases in Group II mGluRs in the Acb. Furthermore, we show an important role for TLR3 signaling in EtOH intake, and a functional involvement of Group II mGluRs.

AB - Background: Growing evidence suggests that neuroimmune signaling via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) alters brain circuitry related to alcohol use disorders. Both ethanol (EtOH) exposure and the TLR3 agonist, poly(I:C), increase brain TLR3 expression in neurons and glia. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that cortical TLR3 expression is correlated with lifetime EtOH intake in humans. Methods: The current experiments investigated the consequences of poly(I:C) treatment on gene expression in 2 brain regions contributing to alcohol reinforcement, the insular cortex (IC) and nucleus accumbens (Acb) and on operant EtOH self-administration, in Long Evans rats. Results: TLR3 activation increased mRNA levels of neuroimmune genes (TLR3, COX2), glutamatergic genes (mGluR2, mGluR3, GLT1), and the trophic factor BDNF in Acb and IC. Furthermore, increases in each of these genes were correlated with increases in TLR3 mRNA, suggesting that TLR3 induction of these genes may impact excitatory transmission in IC and Acb. TLR3 activation also increased EtOH self-administration 18 days postinjection and enhanced the effects of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 to reduce EtOH self-administration following poly(I:C). Conclusions: Together, these findings suggest lasting consequences of TLR3 activation on gene expression including increases in Group II mGluRs in the Acb. Furthermore, we show an important role for TLR3 signaling in EtOH intake, and a functional involvement of Group II mGluRs.

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