Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology not only offers tracking capability to locate equipment and people in real time, but also provides efficient and accurate access to medical data for doctors and other health professionals. However, the reality of RFID adoption is far behind earlier expectation. This study reviews the literature on RFID applications in healthcare based on a formal research framework. We aim to identify current opportunities, potential benefits and adoption barriers. Our study shows that most care providers indicated that RFID to be functional and useful in asset tracking and patient identification. Major barriers to RFID adoption in healthcare include prohibitive costs, technological limitations, and privacy concerns. Although RFID offers healthcare practitioners advantages to enhance clinical practice, better designed RFID systems are needed to increase acceptance and proper use of RFID in healthcare.