Theory and measurement of unbalanced differential-mode transmission lines

Stephen B. Smith, Sedig S. Agili, Vittal Balasubramanian

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

6 Scopus citations


When characterizing a differential-mode transmission path, it is usually assumed that the differential pair is balanced thereby simplifying the analysis. The theory and characterization of balanced pairs is well-established. By contrast, the theory of unbalanced differential pairs has not been extensively investigated despite the fact that such pairs appear in many applications. A complete generic model and characterization of unbalanced differential transmission line pairs is presented. Pairs having geometrical or impedance imbalance as well as pairs having temporal imbalance (also known as in-pair skew) are considered. The paper also describes how to accurately characterize unbalanced lines using TDR and VNA measurements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationInternational Engineering Consortium - DesignCon 2006
Number of pages25
StatePublished - Dec 1 2006
EventDesignCon 2006 - Santa Clara, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 6 2006Feb 9 2006

Publication series

NameInternational Engineering Consortium - DesignCon 2006


OtherDesignCon 2006
CountryUnited States
CitySanta Clara, CA

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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    Smith, S. B., Agili, S. S., & Balasubramanian, V. (2006). Theory and measurement of unbalanced differential-mode transmission lines. In International Engineering Consortium - DesignCon 2006 (pp. 1219-1243). (International Engineering Consortium - DesignCon 2006; Vol. 2).