Thermodynamic properties of Barium-Bismuth alloys determined by emf measurements

Timothy Lichtenstein, Nathan D. Smith, Jarrod Gesualdi, Kuldeep Kumar, Hojong Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Thermodynamic properties of Ba-Bi alloys, including the activity, partial molar entropy and enthalpy, were determined using the electromotive force (emf) technique for fourteen compositions, xBa = 0.05–0.80. Emf measurements were performed at ambient pressure using a Ba(s)|CaF2-BaF2|Ba(in Bi) or Ba-Bi(xBa = 0.05)|CaF2-BaF2|Ba(in Bi) electrochemical cells at 723–1073 K. At 773 K, activity values of Ba were as low as 6.6 × 10−16 at mole fraction xBa = 0.05 and approached unity for mole fractions xBa ≥ 0.80. Stable emf values were observed at mole fractions xBa = 0.05–0.25, exhibiting less than a 5 mV difference between the heating and cooling cycles. Mole fractions xBa ≥ 0.30 exhibited increased hysteresis or had an unexpected emf profile due to the formation of metastable phases such as Bi and Ba5Bi3, confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The Ba-Bi alloys were further characterized using differential scanning calorimetry over the entire composition range. Based on these data, a revised Ba-Bi binary phase diagram is proposed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)628-635
Number of pages8
JournalElectrochimica Acta
Volume228
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 20 2017

Fingerprint

Barium alloys
Bismuth alloys
Electromotive force
Force measurement
Thermodynamic properties
Metastable phases
Electrochemical cells
Chemical analysis
Phase diagrams
Hysteresis
Differential scanning calorimetry
Enthalpy
Entropy
Cooling
Heating
X ray diffraction
Electric potential

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Electrochemistry

Cite this

Lichtenstein, Timothy ; Smith, Nathan D. ; Gesualdi, Jarrod ; Kumar, Kuldeep ; Kim, Hojong. / Thermodynamic properties of Barium-Bismuth alloys determined by emf measurements. In: Electrochimica Acta. 2017 ; Vol. 228. pp. 628-635.
@article{ace81dc5f6324de4b653df8613d2d913,
title = "Thermodynamic properties of Barium-Bismuth alloys determined by emf measurements",
abstract = "Thermodynamic properties of Ba-Bi alloys, including the activity, partial molar entropy and enthalpy, were determined using the electromotive force (emf) technique for fourteen compositions, xBa = 0.05–0.80. Emf measurements were performed at ambient pressure using a Ba(s)|CaF2-BaF2|Ba(in Bi) or Ba-Bi(xBa = 0.05)|CaF2-BaF2|Ba(in Bi) electrochemical cells at 723–1073 K. At 773 K, activity values of Ba were as low as 6.6 × 10−16 at mole fraction xBa = 0.05 and approached unity for mole fractions xBa ≥ 0.80. Stable emf values were observed at mole fractions xBa = 0.05–0.25, exhibiting less than a 5 mV difference between the heating and cooling cycles. Mole fractions xBa ≥ 0.30 exhibited increased hysteresis or had an unexpected emf profile due to the formation of metastable phases such as Bi and Ba5Bi3, confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The Ba-Bi alloys were further characterized using differential scanning calorimetry over the entire composition range. Based on these data, a revised Ba-Bi binary phase diagram is proposed.",
author = "Timothy Lichtenstein and Smith, {Nathan D.} and Jarrod Gesualdi and Kuldeep Kumar and Hojong Kim",
year = "2017",
month = "2",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1016/j.electacta.2016.12.141",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "228",
pages = "628--635",
journal = "Electrochimica Acta",
issn = "0013-4686",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

Thermodynamic properties of Barium-Bismuth alloys determined by emf measurements. / Lichtenstein, Timothy; Smith, Nathan D.; Gesualdi, Jarrod; Kumar, Kuldeep; Kim, Hojong.

In: Electrochimica Acta, Vol. 228, 20.02.2017, p. 628-635.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Thermodynamic properties of Barium-Bismuth alloys determined by emf measurements

AU - Lichtenstein, Timothy

AU - Smith, Nathan D.

AU - Gesualdi, Jarrod

AU - Kumar, Kuldeep

AU - Kim, Hojong

PY - 2017/2/20

Y1 - 2017/2/20

N2 - Thermodynamic properties of Ba-Bi alloys, including the activity, partial molar entropy and enthalpy, were determined using the electromotive force (emf) technique for fourteen compositions, xBa = 0.05–0.80. Emf measurements were performed at ambient pressure using a Ba(s)|CaF2-BaF2|Ba(in Bi) or Ba-Bi(xBa = 0.05)|CaF2-BaF2|Ba(in Bi) electrochemical cells at 723–1073 K. At 773 K, activity values of Ba were as low as 6.6 × 10−16 at mole fraction xBa = 0.05 and approached unity for mole fractions xBa ≥ 0.80. Stable emf values were observed at mole fractions xBa = 0.05–0.25, exhibiting less than a 5 mV difference between the heating and cooling cycles. Mole fractions xBa ≥ 0.30 exhibited increased hysteresis or had an unexpected emf profile due to the formation of metastable phases such as Bi and Ba5Bi3, confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The Ba-Bi alloys were further characterized using differential scanning calorimetry over the entire composition range. Based on these data, a revised Ba-Bi binary phase diagram is proposed.

AB - Thermodynamic properties of Ba-Bi alloys, including the activity, partial molar entropy and enthalpy, were determined using the electromotive force (emf) technique for fourteen compositions, xBa = 0.05–0.80. Emf measurements were performed at ambient pressure using a Ba(s)|CaF2-BaF2|Ba(in Bi) or Ba-Bi(xBa = 0.05)|CaF2-BaF2|Ba(in Bi) electrochemical cells at 723–1073 K. At 773 K, activity values of Ba were as low as 6.6 × 10−16 at mole fraction xBa = 0.05 and approached unity for mole fractions xBa ≥ 0.80. Stable emf values were observed at mole fractions xBa = 0.05–0.25, exhibiting less than a 5 mV difference between the heating and cooling cycles. Mole fractions xBa ≥ 0.30 exhibited increased hysteresis or had an unexpected emf profile due to the formation of metastable phases such as Bi and Ba5Bi3, confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The Ba-Bi alloys were further characterized using differential scanning calorimetry over the entire composition range. Based on these data, a revised Ba-Bi binary phase diagram is proposed.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85010451164&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85010451164&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.electacta.2016.12.141

DO - 10.1016/j.electacta.2016.12.141

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85010451164

VL - 228

SP - 628

EP - 635

JO - Electrochimica Acta

JF - Electrochimica Acta

SN - 0013-4686

ER -