Thio effects and an unconventional metal ion rescue in the genomic hepatitis delta virus ribozyme

Pallavi Thaplyal, Abir Ganguly, Barbara L. Golden, Sharon Hammes-Schiffer, Philip C. Bevilacqua

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Metal ion and nucleobase catalysis are important for ribozyme mechanism, but the extent to which they cooperate is unclear. A crystal structure of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme suggested that the pro-RP oxygen at the scissile phosphate directly coordinates a catalytic Mg2+ ion and is within hydrogen bonding distance of the amine of the general acid C75. Prior studies of the genomic HDV ribozyme, however, showed neither a thio effect nor metal ion rescue using Mn2+. Here, we combine experiment and theory to explore phosphorothioate substitutions at the scissile phosphate. We report significant thio effects at the scissile phosphate and metal ion rescue with Cd2+. Reaction profiles with an SP-phosphorothioate substitution are indistinguishable from those of the unmodified substrate in the presence of Mg2+ or Cd2+, supporting the idea that the pro-SP oxygen does not coordinate metal ions. The R P-phosphorothioate substitution, however, exhibits biphasic kinetics, with the fast-reacting phase displaying a thio effect of up to 5-fold and the slow-reacting phase displaying a thio effect of ∼1000-fold. Moreover, the fast- and slow-reacting phases give metal ion rescues in Cd2+ of up to 10- and 330-fold, respectively. The metal ion rescues are unconventional in that they arise from Cd2+ inhibiting the oxo substrate but not the RP substrate. This metal ion rescue suggests a direct interaction of the catalytic metal ion with the pro-RP oxygen, in line with experiments with the antigenomic HDV ribozyme. Experiments without divalent ions, with a double mutant that interferes with Mg2+ binding, or with C75 deleted suggest that the pro-RP oxygen plays at most a redundant role in positioning C75. Quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) studies indicate that the metal ion contributes to catalysis by interacting with both the pro-RP oxygen and the nucleophilic 2′-hydroxyl, supporting the experimental findings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6499-6514
Number of pages16
JournalBiochemistry
Volume52
Issue number37
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 17 2013

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Hepatitis Delta Virus
Catalytic RNA
Viruses
Metal ions
Metals
Ions
Oxygen
Substitution reactions
Phosphates
Catalysis
Substrates
Experiments
Hydroxyl Radical
Amines
Hydrogen Bonding
Hydrogen bonds
Crystal structure

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry

Cite this

Thaplyal, Pallavi ; Ganguly, Abir ; Golden, Barbara L. ; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon ; Bevilacqua, Philip C. / Thio effects and an unconventional metal ion rescue in the genomic hepatitis delta virus ribozyme. In: Biochemistry. 2013 ; Vol. 52, No. 37. pp. 6499-6514.
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abstract = "Metal ion and nucleobase catalysis are important for ribozyme mechanism, but the extent to which they cooperate is unclear. A crystal structure of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme suggested that the pro-RP oxygen at the scissile phosphate directly coordinates a catalytic Mg2+ ion and is within hydrogen bonding distance of the amine of the general acid C75. Prior studies of the genomic HDV ribozyme, however, showed neither a thio effect nor metal ion rescue using Mn2+. Here, we combine experiment and theory to explore phosphorothioate substitutions at the scissile phosphate. We report significant thio effects at the scissile phosphate and metal ion rescue with Cd2+. Reaction profiles with an SP-phosphorothioate substitution are indistinguishable from those of the unmodified substrate in the presence of Mg2+ or Cd2+, supporting the idea that the pro-SP oxygen does not coordinate metal ions. The R P-phosphorothioate substitution, however, exhibits biphasic kinetics, with the fast-reacting phase displaying a thio effect of up to 5-fold and the slow-reacting phase displaying a thio effect of ∼1000-fold. Moreover, the fast- and slow-reacting phases give metal ion rescues in Cd2+ of up to 10- and 330-fold, respectively. The metal ion rescues are unconventional in that they arise from Cd2+ inhibiting the oxo substrate but not the RP substrate. This metal ion rescue suggests a direct interaction of the catalytic metal ion with the pro-RP oxygen, in line with experiments with the antigenomic HDV ribozyme. Experiments without divalent ions, with a double mutant that interferes with Mg2+ binding, or with C75 deleted suggest that the pro-RP oxygen plays at most a redundant role in positioning C75. Quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) studies indicate that the metal ion contributes to catalysis by interacting with both the pro-RP oxygen and the nucleophilic 2′-hydroxyl, supporting the experimental findings.",
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Thio effects and an unconventional metal ion rescue in the genomic hepatitis delta virus ribozyme. / Thaplyal, Pallavi; Ganguly, Abir; Golden, Barbara L.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Bevilacqua, Philip C.

In: Biochemistry, Vol. 52, No. 37, 17.09.2013, p. 6499-6514.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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