Thresholds of O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase which significant resistance of human glial tumor xenografts to treatment with 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea or temozolomide

Demetrius M. Kokkinakis, Dora B. Bocangel, S. Clifford Schold, Robert C. Moschel, Anthony E. Pegg

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Abstract

Bis-2-chloroethylnitrosourea (BCNU) or temozolomide (TMZ) were tested alone or in combination with the AGT inhibitors O6-benzyl-2′-deoxyguanosine (dBG) or O6benzylguanine (BG) against human glial tumor xenografts growing s.c. in athymic mice. Four glioblastoma (SWB77, SWB40, SWB39, and D-54) and one anaplastic oligodendroglioma (SWB61) xenografts having O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) activities of 75, 45, 10, < 10, and 16 fmol/mg protein, respectively, were used. BCNU at 35 mg/m2was ineffective against these tumors, although 70 mg/m2(LD1075 mg/m2) produced a marked tumor growth delay (T-C) in D54 but had no effect against SWB40 or SWB77. Coadministration of BG or dBG and BCNU necessitated reduction of the BCNU dose to a maximum of 30 and 35 mg/m2respectively, because of increased toxicity. Optimized treatment with dBG (250 mg/m2) and BCNU (35 mg/m2) resulted in T-Cs of 30, 29, 11, 16, and 14 days for SWB77, SWB40, SWB39, D-54 and SWB61, respectively. These delays were more pronounced than those induced with optimized, isotoxic treatments with BG (180 mg/m2) and BCNU (30 mg/m2). In comparison to BCNU, TMZ was less toxic, with an LD 10of 400 mg/m2TMZ (300 mg/m2) was more effective than BCNU against SWB77, SWB40, and SWB61, inducing T-Cs of 23, 53, and 56 days, respectively. BG and dBG enhanced the toxicity of TMZ in athymic mice by decreasing the LD10from 400 to 200 mg/m2TMZ (180 mg/m2) with either BG (180 mg/m2) or dBG (250 mg/m2) resulted in T-Cs of 31 and 49 days in SWB77, respectively, as compared with 16 days for TMZ (180 mg/m2) alone. In SWB40, the combination of TMZ with dBG, but not with BG, was significantly more effective than the maximum tolerated dose of TMZ (300 mg/m2) alone. The combination of TMZ with AGT inactivators had no benefit, as compared with TMZ alone, against xenografts with marginal AGT activity. In conclusion, at equimolar doses dBG was less toxic than BG in athymic mice when combined with either BCNU or TMZ. In this regard, BCNU or TMZ can be used at higher doses in combination with dBG than with BG. This study further demonstrates that there is a significant benefit of depleting AGT with nonspecific AGT inhibitors prior to treatment with either BCNU or TMZ in tumors having AGT activity >45 fmol/mg protein.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)421-428
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Cancer Research
Volume7
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2001

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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