Time Orientation and Attitudes toward Advertising in a High-Context Culture: An Empirical Study of Macau

Erdener Kaynak, Ali Kara, Clement S.F. Chow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations


Each culture has its own dominant construct of time that influences the value placed on the use of time by individuals. This empirical study examines how time orientations influence attitudes toward advertising in a high-context culture of an Asian economy. Data was collected through surveys in Macau. Findings show that Macanese are more future orientated but less enthusiastic towards advertising; they switch to another channel and engage in other activities during commercial breaks. Results also show that past orientation has the strongest impact on advertising avoidance. The authors offer managerial implications for the development of effective advertising programs in this emerging market.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)88-106
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Asia-Pacific Business
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2013


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Business and International Management
  • Business, Management and Accounting(all)

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