Passive cavitation mapping, which generates images using bubble acoustic emission signals, has been increasingly used for monitoring and guiding focused ultrasound surgery. Passive cavitation mapping can be used as an adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging to provide crucial information on the safety and efficacy of focused ultrasound surgery. The most widely used algorithm for passive cavitation mapping is delay-and-sum. One of the major limitations of delay-and-sum is its suboptimal computational efficiency. Although frequency-domain delay-and-sum can partially resolve this issue, such an algorithm is not suitable for imaging the evolution of bubble activity in real time and for cases in which cavitation events occur asynchronously. This study investigates a transient angular spectrum approach for passive cavitation mapping. The working principle of this approach is to back propagate the received signal to the domain of interest and reconstruct the spatial-temporal wave field encoded with the bubble location and collapse time. The transient angular spectrum approach is validated using an in silico model and water bath experiments. It is found that the transient angular spectrum approach yields similar results to delay-and-sum, but it is one order of magnitude faster. The results obtained by this study suggest that the transient angular spectrum approach is promising for fast and accurate passive cavitation mapping.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||IEEE transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control|
|State||Accepted/In press - 2021|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Acoustics and Ultrasonics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering