Purpose: For resected brain metastases (BMs), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is often offered to minimize local recurrence (LR). Although the aim is to deliver SRS within a few weeks of surgery, a variety of socioeconomic, medical, and procedural issues can cause delays. We evaluated the relationship between timing of postoperative SRS and LR. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified a consecutive series of patients with BM managed with resection and SRS or fractionated SRS at our institution from 2012 to 2018. We assessed the correlation of time to SRS and other demographic, disease, and treatment variables with LR, local recurrence-free survival, distant recurrence, distant recurrence-free survival, and overall survival. Results: A total of 133 patients met inclusion criteria. The median age was 64.5 years. Approximately half of patients had a single BM, and median BM size was 2.9 cm. Gross total resection was achieved in 111 patients (83.5%), and more than 90% of patients received fractionated SRS. The median time to SRS was 37.0 days, and the LR rate was 16.4%. Time to SRS was predictive of LR. The median time from surgery to SRS was 34.0 days for patients without LR versus 61.0 days for those with LR (P < .01). The LR rate was 2.3% with SRS administered ≤4 weeks postoperatively, compared with 23.6% if SRS was administered >4 weeks postoperatively (P < .01). Local recurrence-free survival was also improved for patients who underwent SRS at ≤4 weeks (P = .02). Delayed SRS was also predictive of distant recurrence (P = .02) but not overall survival. Conclusions: In this retrospective study, the strongest predictor of LR after postoperative SRS for BM was time to SRS, and a cutoff of 4 weeks was a reliable predictor of recurrence. These findings merit investigation in a prospective, randomized trial.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging