Background: The 2017 AUA White Paper on prevention of prostate needle biopsy (PNB) complications highlights an algorithm for reducing procedural related infections. The incorporation of topical rectal antiseptic (TRS) at time of transrectal PNB is listed as one such modality. We present data on over 1000 transrectal PNB procedures to determine the impact of TRS on 1) infectious complications and 2) use of augmented procedural antibiotics. Methods: The records of 1181 transrectal PNB procedures performed over a 10-year period were reviewed. In 2013, TRS with either 10% povidone iodine or 4% chlorhexidine was more regularly incorporated into PNB procedures. Clinical and procedural factors were analyzed for association with post-procedure infections. Infectious complications outcomes were compared in patients receiving TRS (n = 566) versus those who had not (n = 615). Results: A total of 990 men underwent 1181 transrectal PNB procedures. Median age of the cohort was 63 years with a median PSA of 7 ng/dL. Of them, 86% of the men were Caucasian, 28% had undergone at least one prior biopsy, 14% were diabetic, and 6% had prior hospitalization within 6 months of the procedure. Five hundred sixty-six patients (48%) received TRS at time of biopsy. Perioperative IV adjunctive antibiotics were used less frequently in patients receiving TRS (13.4% vs. 28.6%, p < 0.001). Furthermore, patients receiving TRS experienced lower rates of clinical infections (1.2% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.14), as well as lower likelihood of severe infections evidenced by decreased rates of hospital admission (0.5% vs. 2.3%, p = 0.013). Rectal vault bacteriology obtained before and after TRS was available in 180 men noting a 98.1% decrease in colony counts after local treatment. Conclusions: TRS at time of transrectal PNB was associated with decreased use of IV procedural antibiotics as well as decreased severity of infections post-biopsy. This simple technique enhances antibiotic stewardship while simultaneously improving quality outcomes of the procedure.
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