Towards the understanding of the graphene oxide structure

How to control the formation of humic-and fulvic-like oxidized debris

Iluminada Rodriguez-Pastor, Gloria Ramos-Fernandez, Helena Varela-Rizo, Mauricio Terrones Maldonado, Ignacio Martin-Gullon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

40 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Former structural models of graphene oxide (GO) indicated that it consists of graphene-like sheets with oxygen groups, and no attention was paid to the resulting sheet size. We now provide evidence of the complex GO structure consisting of large and small GO sheets (or oxidized debris). Different oxidation reactions were studied. KMnO4 derived GO consists of large sheets (20-30 wt.%), and oxidized debris deposits, which are formed by humicand fulvic-like fragments. Large GO sheets contain oxygen groups, especially at the edges, such as carbonyl, lactone and carboxylic groups. Humic-like debris consists of an amorphous gel containing more oxygenated groups and trapped water molecules. The main desorbable fraction upon heating is the fulvic-like material, which contains oxygen groups and fragments with high edge/surface ratio. KClO3 in HNO3 or the Brodie method produces a highly oxidized material but at the flake level surface only; little oxidized debris and water contents are found. It is noteworthy that an efficient basal cutting of the graphitic planes in addition to an effective intercalation is caused by KMnO4, and the aid of NaNO3 makes this process even more effective, thus yielding large monolayers of GO and a large amount of humic-and fulvic-like substances.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)299-309
Number of pages11
JournalCarbon
Volume84
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

Fingerprint

Graphite
Debris
Oxides
Graphene
Oxygen
Lactones
Intercalation
Water content
Monolayers
Deposits
Gels
Heating
Oxidation
Molecules
Water

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this

Rodriguez-Pastor, Iluminada ; Ramos-Fernandez, Gloria ; Varela-Rizo, Helena ; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio ; Martin-Gullon, Ignacio. / Towards the understanding of the graphene oxide structure : How to control the formation of humic-and fulvic-like oxidized debris. In: Carbon. 2015 ; Vol. 84, No. 1. pp. 299-309.
@article{9782deb73ea54a8f9d3c8d084f4b4e74,
title = "Towards the understanding of the graphene oxide structure: How to control the formation of humic-and fulvic-like oxidized debris",
abstract = "Former structural models of graphene oxide (GO) indicated that it consists of graphene-like sheets with oxygen groups, and no attention was paid to the resulting sheet size. We now provide evidence of the complex GO structure consisting of large and small GO sheets (or oxidized debris). Different oxidation reactions were studied. KMnO4 derived GO consists of large sheets (20-30 wt.{\%}), and oxidized debris deposits, which are formed by humicand fulvic-like fragments. Large GO sheets contain oxygen groups, especially at the edges, such as carbonyl, lactone and carboxylic groups. Humic-like debris consists of an amorphous gel containing more oxygenated groups and trapped water molecules. The main desorbable fraction upon heating is the fulvic-like material, which contains oxygen groups and fragments with high edge/surface ratio. KClO3 in HNO3 or the Brodie method produces a highly oxidized material but at the flake level surface only; little oxidized debris and water contents are found. It is noteworthy that an efficient basal cutting of the graphitic planes in addition to an effective intercalation is caused by KMnO4, and the aid of NaNO3 makes this process even more effective, thus yielding large monolayers of GO and a large amount of humic-and fulvic-like substances.",
author = "Iluminada Rodriguez-Pastor and Gloria Ramos-Fernandez and Helena Varela-Rizo and {Terrones Maldonado}, Mauricio and Ignacio Martin-Gullon",
year = "2015",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.carbon.2014.12.027",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "84",
pages = "299--309",
journal = "Carbon",
issn = "0008-6223",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "1",

}

Towards the understanding of the graphene oxide structure : How to control the formation of humic-and fulvic-like oxidized debris. / Rodriguez-Pastor, Iluminada; Ramos-Fernandez, Gloria; Varela-Rizo, Helena; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio; Martin-Gullon, Ignacio.

In: Carbon, Vol. 84, No. 1, 01.01.2015, p. 299-309.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Towards the understanding of the graphene oxide structure

T2 - How to control the formation of humic-and fulvic-like oxidized debris

AU - Rodriguez-Pastor, Iluminada

AU - Ramos-Fernandez, Gloria

AU - Varela-Rizo, Helena

AU - Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio

AU - Martin-Gullon, Ignacio

PY - 2015/1/1

Y1 - 2015/1/1

N2 - Former structural models of graphene oxide (GO) indicated that it consists of graphene-like sheets with oxygen groups, and no attention was paid to the resulting sheet size. We now provide evidence of the complex GO structure consisting of large and small GO sheets (or oxidized debris). Different oxidation reactions were studied. KMnO4 derived GO consists of large sheets (20-30 wt.%), and oxidized debris deposits, which are formed by humicand fulvic-like fragments. Large GO sheets contain oxygen groups, especially at the edges, such as carbonyl, lactone and carboxylic groups. Humic-like debris consists of an amorphous gel containing more oxygenated groups and trapped water molecules. The main desorbable fraction upon heating is the fulvic-like material, which contains oxygen groups and fragments with high edge/surface ratio. KClO3 in HNO3 or the Brodie method produces a highly oxidized material but at the flake level surface only; little oxidized debris and water contents are found. It is noteworthy that an efficient basal cutting of the graphitic planes in addition to an effective intercalation is caused by KMnO4, and the aid of NaNO3 makes this process even more effective, thus yielding large monolayers of GO and a large amount of humic-and fulvic-like substances.

AB - Former structural models of graphene oxide (GO) indicated that it consists of graphene-like sheets with oxygen groups, and no attention was paid to the resulting sheet size. We now provide evidence of the complex GO structure consisting of large and small GO sheets (or oxidized debris). Different oxidation reactions were studied. KMnO4 derived GO consists of large sheets (20-30 wt.%), and oxidized debris deposits, which are formed by humicand fulvic-like fragments. Large GO sheets contain oxygen groups, especially at the edges, such as carbonyl, lactone and carboxylic groups. Humic-like debris consists of an amorphous gel containing more oxygenated groups and trapped water molecules. The main desorbable fraction upon heating is the fulvic-like material, which contains oxygen groups and fragments with high edge/surface ratio. KClO3 in HNO3 or the Brodie method produces a highly oxidized material but at the flake level surface only; little oxidized debris and water contents are found. It is noteworthy that an efficient basal cutting of the graphitic planes in addition to an effective intercalation is caused by KMnO4, and the aid of NaNO3 makes this process even more effective, thus yielding large monolayers of GO and a large amount of humic-and fulvic-like substances.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84922224134&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84922224134&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.carbon.2014.12.027

DO - 10.1016/j.carbon.2014.12.027

M3 - Article

VL - 84

SP - 299

EP - 309

JO - Carbon

JF - Carbon

SN - 0008-6223

IS - 1

ER -