Tracing the mass-dependent star formation history of late-type galaxies using X-ray emission: Results from the chandra deep fields

B. D. Lehmer, W. N. Brandt, D. M. Alexander, E. F. Bell, A. E. Hornschemeier, D. H. McIntosh, F. E. Bauer, R. Gilli, V. Mainieri, D. P. Schneider, J. D. Silverman, A. T. Steffen, P. Tozzi, C. Wolf

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Abstract

We report on the X-ray evolution over the last ≈9 Gyr of cosmic history (i.e., since z = 1.4) of late-type galaxy populations in the Chandra Deep Field-North and Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-N and E-CDF-S, respectively; jointly CDFs) survey fields. Our late-type galaxy sample consists of 2568 galaxies, which were identified using rest-frame optical colors and HST morphologies. We utilized X-ray stacking analyses to investigate the X-ray emission from these galaxies, emphasizing the contributions from normal galaxies that are not dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Over this redshift range, we find significant increases (factors of ≈5-10) in the X-ray-to-optical mean luminosity ratio (LX/LB) and the X-ray-to-stellar mass mean ratio (LX/M&z.ast;) for galaxy populations selected by LB and M&z.ast;, respectively. When analyzing galaxy samples selected via SFR, we find that the mean X-ray-to-SFR ratio (LX/SFR) is consistent with being constant over the entire redshift range for galaxies with SFR = 1-100 M yr -1, thus demonstrating that X-ray emission can be used as a robust indicator of star formation activity out to z ≈ 1.4. We find that the star formation activity (as traced by X-ray luminosity) per unit stellar mass in a given redshift bin increases with decreasing stellar mass over the redshift range z = 0.2-1, which is consistent with previous studies of how star formation activity depends on stellar mass. Finally, we extend our X-ray analyses to Lyman break galaxies at z ∼ 3 and estimate that LX/L B at z ∼ 3 is similar to its value at z = 1.4.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1163-1182
Number of pages20
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume681
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 10 2008

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tracing
star formation
histories
galaxies
history
stellar mass
x rays
luminosity
population type
stacking
active galactic nuclei
field survey
color
estimates

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Lehmer, B. D. ; Brandt, W. N. ; Alexander, D. M. ; Bell, E. F. ; Hornschemeier, A. E. ; McIntosh, D. H. ; Bauer, F. E. ; Gilli, R. ; Mainieri, V. ; Schneider, D. P. ; Silverman, J. D. ; Steffen, A. T. ; Tozzi, P. ; Wolf, C. / Tracing the mass-dependent star formation history of late-type galaxies using X-ray emission : Results from the chandra deep fields. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2008 ; Vol. 681, No. 2. pp. 1163-1182.
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title = "Tracing the mass-dependent star formation history of late-type galaxies using X-ray emission: Results from the chandra deep fields",
abstract = "We report on the X-ray evolution over the last ≈9 Gyr of cosmic history (i.e., since z = 1.4) of late-type galaxy populations in the Chandra Deep Field-North and Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-N and E-CDF-S, respectively; jointly CDFs) survey fields. Our late-type galaxy sample consists of 2568 galaxies, which were identified using rest-frame optical colors and HST morphologies. We utilized X-ray stacking analyses to investigate the X-ray emission from these galaxies, emphasizing the contributions from normal galaxies that are not dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Over this redshift range, we find significant increases (factors of ≈5-10) in the X-ray-to-optical mean luminosity ratio (LX/LB) and the X-ray-to-stellar mass mean ratio (LX/M&z.ast;) for galaxy populations selected by LB and M&z.ast;, respectively. When analyzing galaxy samples selected via SFR, we find that the mean X-ray-to-SFR ratio (LX/SFR) is consistent with being constant over the entire redshift range for galaxies with SFR = 1-100 M⊙ yr -1, thus demonstrating that X-ray emission can be used as a robust indicator of star formation activity out to z ≈ 1.4. We find that the star formation activity (as traced by X-ray luminosity) per unit stellar mass in a given redshift bin increases with decreasing stellar mass over the redshift range z = 0.2-1, which is consistent with previous studies of how star formation activity depends on stellar mass. Finally, we extend our X-ray analyses to Lyman break galaxies at z ∼ 3 and estimate that LX/L B at z ∼ 3 is similar to its value at z = 1.4.",
author = "Lehmer, {B. D.} and Brandt, {W. N.} and Alexander, {D. M.} and Bell, {E. F.} and Hornschemeier, {A. E.} and McIntosh, {D. H.} and Bauer, {F. E.} and R. Gilli and V. Mainieri and Schneider, {D. P.} and Silverman, {J. D.} and Steffen, {A. T.} and P. Tozzi and C. Wolf",
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Lehmer, BD, Brandt, WN, Alexander, DM, Bell, EF, Hornschemeier, AE, McIntosh, DH, Bauer, FE, Gilli, R, Mainieri, V, Schneider, DP, Silverman, JD, Steffen, AT, Tozzi, P & Wolf, C 2008, 'Tracing the mass-dependent star formation history of late-type galaxies using X-ray emission: Results from the chandra deep fields', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 681, no. 2, pp. 1163-1182. https://doi.org/10.1086/588459

Tracing the mass-dependent star formation history of late-type galaxies using X-ray emission : Results from the chandra deep fields. / Lehmer, B. D.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Bell, E. F.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; McIntosh, D. H.; Bauer, F. E.; Gilli, R.; Mainieri, V.; Schneider, D. P.; Silverman, J. D.; Steffen, A. T.; Tozzi, P.; Wolf, C.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 681, No. 2, 10.07.2008, p. 1163-1182.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Tracing the mass-dependent star formation history of late-type galaxies using X-ray emission

T2 - Results from the chandra deep fields

AU - Lehmer, B. D.

AU - Brandt, W. N.

AU - Alexander, D. M.

AU - Bell, E. F.

AU - Hornschemeier, A. E.

AU - McIntosh, D. H.

AU - Bauer, F. E.

AU - Gilli, R.

AU - Mainieri, V.

AU - Schneider, D. P.

AU - Silverman, J. D.

AU - Steffen, A. T.

AU - Tozzi, P.

AU - Wolf, C.

PY - 2008/7/10

Y1 - 2008/7/10

N2 - We report on the X-ray evolution over the last ≈9 Gyr of cosmic history (i.e., since z = 1.4) of late-type galaxy populations in the Chandra Deep Field-North and Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-N and E-CDF-S, respectively; jointly CDFs) survey fields. Our late-type galaxy sample consists of 2568 galaxies, which were identified using rest-frame optical colors and HST morphologies. We utilized X-ray stacking analyses to investigate the X-ray emission from these galaxies, emphasizing the contributions from normal galaxies that are not dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Over this redshift range, we find significant increases (factors of ≈5-10) in the X-ray-to-optical mean luminosity ratio (LX/LB) and the X-ray-to-stellar mass mean ratio (LX/M&z.ast;) for galaxy populations selected by LB and M&z.ast;, respectively. When analyzing galaxy samples selected via SFR, we find that the mean X-ray-to-SFR ratio (LX/SFR) is consistent with being constant over the entire redshift range for galaxies with SFR = 1-100 M⊙ yr -1, thus demonstrating that X-ray emission can be used as a robust indicator of star formation activity out to z ≈ 1.4. We find that the star formation activity (as traced by X-ray luminosity) per unit stellar mass in a given redshift bin increases with decreasing stellar mass over the redshift range z = 0.2-1, which is consistent with previous studies of how star formation activity depends on stellar mass. Finally, we extend our X-ray analyses to Lyman break galaxies at z ∼ 3 and estimate that LX/L B at z ∼ 3 is similar to its value at z = 1.4.

AB - We report on the X-ray evolution over the last ≈9 Gyr of cosmic history (i.e., since z = 1.4) of late-type galaxy populations in the Chandra Deep Field-North and Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-N and E-CDF-S, respectively; jointly CDFs) survey fields. Our late-type galaxy sample consists of 2568 galaxies, which were identified using rest-frame optical colors and HST morphologies. We utilized X-ray stacking analyses to investigate the X-ray emission from these galaxies, emphasizing the contributions from normal galaxies that are not dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Over this redshift range, we find significant increases (factors of ≈5-10) in the X-ray-to-optical mean luminosity ratio (LX/LB) and the X-ray-to-stellar mass mean ratio (LX/M&z.ast;) for galaxy populations selected by LB and M&z.ast;, respectively. When analyzing galaxy samples selected via SFR, we find that the mean X-ray-to-SFR ratio (LX/SFR) is consistent with being constant over the entire redshift range for galaxies with SFR = 1-100 M⊙ yr -1, thus demonstrating that X-ray emission can be used as a robust indicator of star formation activity out to z ≈ 1.4. We find that the star formation activity (as traced by X-ray luminosity) per unit stellar mass in a given redshift bin increases with decreasing stellar mass over the redshift range z = 0.2-1, which is consistent with previous studies of how star formation activity depends on stellar mass. Finally, we extend our X-ray analyses to Lyman break galaxies at z ∼ 3 and estimate that LX/L B at z ∼ 3 is similar to its value at z = 1.4.

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